Information for Prospects
Fees and Tuition Requirements
 
Each spring the School Board shall determine book bills and tuition rates for the upcoming school year.  Rates are as follows for 2018-19:

 
Member Rates Gr. K-8     Non-Member Rates  
K-8 (includes $30 technology fee) $230   Kindergarten
(includes $30 technology fee)
$230
      Grades 1-8 if 1st year at St. John's (includes $30 technology fee) $230
      Grades 1-8 following years (includes $30 technology fee) $1,180
 
3K/4K Payment Plan. Children must be 3 by September 1st.
  1. Two days per week-$650/year
  2. Three days per week-$850/year
  3. Four-five days per week-$1,000/year
 
Additional Student

2nd child tuition rate is 75%. 3rd child tuition rate is 50%.

Book Bill, K-8

All children in grades K-8 are required to pay the $230 book bill. The book bill is meant to help offset the cost of our various curriculum needs, along with any other resources or materials that the classroom may need throughout the school year.
For students in grades 3-8 who participate in sports, an extra $25 per child will be added to the book bill.

School Meals

St. John's Lutheran School participates in the National School Breakfast and Hot Lunch Programs. Meals are offered to all children every day. Prices are below.
3K-8 Breakfast-$1.20/day
3K-8 Lunch-$2.25/day
Milk only or additional milk-$0.25/carton

Free/reduced meals are also available. Contact the office for an application form any time.

 
ACTIVITIES AT ST. JOHN'S
 
ELC
Fall
Fire Department- Classroom Visit and Firetruck tour
Turnpike Greenhouse and Pumpkin Patch
Grandparents’ Day
Winter
Children’s Christmas Program
Dr. Scaletta’s Dentist Office
Muffins with Moms!
Donuts with Dads!
Spring
Neillsville Public Library
Wildwood Zoo and Park
Neighborhood Walks
Graduation and Closing Program


Grades K-2
Piano lessons
Art fair
Bible fair
Science fair
Fire Station Visit
Police Visit
Musicals
Clark Electric
Teddy Bear Clinic at MMC
Family Night Activities (kickball tournament, cookie decorating, pine car derby, pumpkin carving, movie night, reading night, Hiking, Biking)
Track Meet
Neillsville Rec. Dept. opportunities

Grades 3-8
Piano lessons
Art fair
Bible fair
Science fair
Band through Neillsville Public School
Volleyball
Soccer
Basketball
Track Meet
Hoops for Heart
Spelling Bee
Math Bowl
Forensics (coming soon)
Camp Phillip overnight trip (Grades 6-8)
Various other field trips
Family Night Activities (kickball tournament, cookie decorating, pine car derby, pumpkin carving, movie night, reading night, Hiking, Biking)
Neillsville Rec. Dept opportunities
St. John's Curriculum
    Religion Curriculum
  • Religion Curriculum
      
    Part 1.  Philosophy of Religion:
    God’s Word is the only source of knowledge for salvation.  It is God’s desire that “all are to be saved” (I Timothy 2:4) and that His Word be taught to all creatures (Matthew 28:19).  It is, therefore, the primary responsibility of St. John’s Lutheran School to teach God’s Word in its truth and purity.
     
    Part 2.  Exit goals for graduation:
    It is our prayer that our religion curriculum reaches the following goals for each child.
     
    1. The child realizes that he is a sinner and needs God’s love.
    2. The child realizes that God, in His love for sinful man, sent His Son as Savior.
    3. The child realizes that God’s Word, as contained in Holy Scripture, is the only source of Christian truth.
    4. The child learns that he has the sole responsibility of practicing his Christian faith in the world.
    5. The child learns how to pray and for what to pray.
    6. The child is prepared for communicant membership in the congregation.
    7. The child commits the following to memory: Bible passages, Bible history facts, hymn verses, Luther’s explanations to parts of the Catechism, and biblical truths.
     
    Part 3.  Measurable Objectives:
    By the end of Grade 1, the child will:
    1. Be familiar with and be able to retell familiar Old Testament Bible stories (e.g. Creation, The Flood, David and Goliath, etc.).
    2. Memorize foundational memory treasures such as John 3:16, Romans 6:23, and Genesis 1:1.
    3. Know how to locate a hymn in Christian Worship and follow and sing its verses.
    4. Know the basic Biblical truth that he/she is a sinner.
    5. Know the basic Biblical truth that Jesus loved him/her and showed that love by dying on the cross to take away his/her sins.
    6. Be familiar with and be able to retell events from the life of Jesus such as His birth, His death, and some of His miracles.
    7. Memorize selected basic parts of Luther’s Catechism such as the First Article of the Apostle’s Creed, the Lord’s Prayer, and the Ten Commandments.
     
    By the end of Grade 4, the child will also:
    1. Be able to locate a passage in his/her Bible.
    2. Know the order of the books of both the Old and New Testaments.
    3. Be able to follow the liturgy in Christian Worship.
    4. Memorize additional key memory treasures from the Bible as outlined in the Christ Light curriculum.
    5. Memorize additional key parts of Luther’s Catechism such as the explanations to the Ten Commandments and the Apostle’s Creed.
    6. Be able to retell additional Old Testament Bible stories and events from the life of Jesus.
    7. Demonstrate repentance and forgiveness in situations that arise at school.
    8. Memorize selected verses from hymns in Christian Worship.
     
    By the end of Grade 8, the child will also:
    1. Memorize several selected memory treasures from the Bible as outlined in the Christ Light curriculum.
    2. Memorize the 6 chief parts of Luther’s Catechism and their explanations.
    3. Memorize several hymns from Christian Worship.
    4. Know biblical truths applicable to teenage life.  These will include but are not limited to: 
    1. use of time, talent, and treasure
    2. God-pleasing decisions
    3. relationships and getting along with others
    4. being a part of the Christ’s body, the Church
    5. where to find the truth
    6. serving God and others out of love for Jesus
    7. God’s plan for his/her future
    8. honoring parents and others in authority
    9. being ready for Judgment Day
    1. Know what the Bible teaches about Baptism and the Lord’s Supper.
    2. Know events from the Early Christian Church such as Pentecost, the conversion of Saul and Paul’s missionary journeys.
     
    Part 4. Course of Study:
    Resources for our religion curriculum:
    1. The Bible
    2. Book of Concord
    3. Luther’s Catechism
    4. Christian Worship
    5. Christ-Light Curriculum
    6. Bible History Commentaries
    7. The People’s Bible series
    8. Various visual aids and maps
     
    Scope and sequence of lessons:
    Grades PreK-5:  see the Christ Light Scope and Sequence attached at the end of this document.
     
    Grades 6-8: 
    Christ Light Topical Bible Studies (rotated on a 3-year cycle):
    1.  Christians in a World of Many Cultures
    2.  What is Truth?
    3.  Learning to Know Jesus the Christ
    4.  Chosen by God
    5.  Christian Life Planning
    6.  What About....
    7.  How Can I Get Along Better....
    8.  What Do I Say, Lord......
    9.  Who Am I?
    10.  How Can I Make God-Pleasing Decisions
    11.  Reading the Bible
    12.  Teenagers as Witnesses for Christ
     
    Catechism Class:
    Catechism is also taught on a 2-year cycle in both 5th and 6th grade by Mr. Allard and 7th and 8th grade by Pastor Biebert two days a week.  In addition to the topical studies listed above, each student will thoroughly explore the 6 chief parts of Luther’s Catechism by using the Catechism and workbooks for 4 years. Emphasis will be on both memorization of the parts but also how to apply these teachings to a Christian’s life.
     
    Part 5.  Assessment:
    The faculty of St. John’s will use several tools and strategies to assess the measurable objectives listed in Part 3 of this document.  These will include but are not limited to the following:
    1. listening to memory work
    2. written memory work quizzes
    3. observation of student behavior
    4. class discussion
    5. workbooks for Christ Light and Catechism
      
    June, 2018
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     
     
    Math Curriculum
  •  
    Introduction and RationalePhilip’s
     
    The study of mathematics is important to help students recognize the orderly way God created our world and how in that same way he allows numbers to work perfectly together as calculations are performed. Knowledge of mathematics is essential to be a productive citizen. St. John's is committed to offering students a high-quality mathematics education so they are prepared to be leaders in the church, school, and community.
    The study of mathematics also provides every student with the opportunity to choose among the full range of future career paths. Mathematics trains the mind to be analytic - providing the foundation for intelligent and precise thinking.
    To compete successfully in the worldwide economy, students must have a high degree of comprehension in mathematics. More than that, however, mathematics is critical for all students, not only those who will have careers that demand advanced mathematical preparation, but all citizens who will be living in the twenty-first century. These standards are based on the premise that all students are capable of learning rigorous mathematics and learning it well. Proficiency in most of mathematics is not an innate characteristic; it is achieved through persistence, effort, and practice.

    The standards focus on essential content for all students and prepare students for the study of advanced mathematics, science and technical careers, and postsecondary study in all content areas. All students are required to grapple with solving problems; develop abstract, analytic thinking skills; learn to deal effectively and comfortably with variables and equations; and use mathematical notation effectively to model situations. The goal in mathematics education is for students to:
    • Develop fluency in basic computational skills.
    • Develop an understanding of mathematical concepts.
    • Become mathematical problem solvers who can recognize and solve routine problems readily and can find ways to reach a solution or goal where no routine path is apparent.
    • Communicate precisely about quantities, logical relationships, and unknown values through the use of signs, symbols, models, graphs, and mathematical terms.
    • Reason mathematically by gathering data, analyzing evidence, and building arguments to support or refute hypotheses.
    • Make connections among mathematical ideas and between mathematics and other disciplines.
    •  
    The standards identify what all students should know and be able to do at each grade level. The standards emphasize computational and procedural skills, conceptual understanding, and problem solving. These three components of mathematics instruction and learning are not separate from each other; instead, they are intertwined and mutually reinforcing.
     
    Content Standards
    Pre-School
    By the end of pre-kindergarten, students understand small numbers, quantities, and simple shapes in their everyday environment. They count, compare, describe and sort objects, and develop a sense of properties and patterns. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way.
    Number Sense
    1. Students understand the relationship between numbers and quantities (i.e., that a set of objects has the same number of objects in different situations regardless of its position or arrangement):
      1. Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other.
      2. Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).
      3. Know that the larger numbers describe sets with more objects in them than the smaller numbers have.
    2. Students understand and describe simple additions and subtractions:
      1. Use concrete objects to determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems (for two numbers that are each less than 10).
    3. Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones and tens places:
      1.  Recognize when an estimate is reasonable.
    Algebra and Functions
    1. Students sort and classify objects:
      1. Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red).
    Measurement and Geometry
    1. Students understand the concept of time and units to measure it; they understand that objects have properties, such as length, weight, and capacity, and that comparisons may be made by referring to those properties:
      1. Compare the length, weight, and capacity of objects by making direct comparisons with reference objects (e.g., note which object is shorter, longer, taller, lighter, heavier, or holds more).
      2. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar).
      3. Name the days of the week.
      4. Identify the time (to the nearest hour) of everyday events (e.g., lunch time is 12 o'clock; bedtime is 8 o'clock at night).
     
    1. Students identify common objects in their environment and describe the geometric features:
      1. Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone).
      2. Compare familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes (e.g., position, shape, size, roundness, number of corners).
     
    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1. Students collect information about objects and events in their environment:
      1. Pose information questions; collect data; and record the results using objects, pictures, and picture graphs.
      2. Identify, describe, and extend simple patterns (such as circles or triangles) by referring to their shapes, sizes, or colors.
    Mathematical Reasoning
    1. Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:
      1. Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
      2. Use tools and strategies, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
    2. Students solve problems in reasonable ways and justify their reasoning:
      1. Explain the reasoning used with concrete objects and/ or pictorial representations.
      2. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.
     
    Kindergarten
    By the end of kindergarten, students understand small numbers, quantities, and simple shapes in their everyday environment. They count, compare, describe and sort objects, and develop a sense of properties and patterns. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way.
    Number Sense
    1. Students understand the relationship between numbers and quantities (i.e., that a set of objects has the same number of objects in different situations regardless of its position or arrangement):
      1. Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other.
      2. Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).
      3. Know that the larger numbers describe sets with more objects in them than the smaller numbers have.
    2. Students understand and describe simple additions and subtractions:
      1. Use concrete objects to determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems (for two numbers that are each less than 10).
    3. Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones and tens places:
      1.  Recognize when an estimate is reasonable.
    Algebra and Functions
    1. Students sort and classify objects:
      1. Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red).
    Measurement and Geometry
    1. Students understand the concept of time and units to measure it; they understand that objects have properties, such as length, weight, and capacity, and that comparisons may be made by referring to those properties:
      1. Compare the length, weight, and capacity of objects by making direct comparisons with reference objects (e.g., note which object is shorter, longer, taller, lighter, heavier, or holds more).
      2. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar).
      3. Name the days of the week.
      4. Identify the time (to the nearest hour) of everyday events (e.g., lunch time is 12 o'clock; bedtime is 8 o'clock at night).
     
    1. Students identify common objects in their environment and describe the geometric features:
      1. Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone).
      2. Compare familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes (e.g., position, shape, size, roundness, number of corners).
    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1. Students collect information about objects and events in their environment:
      1. Pose information questions; collect data; and record the results using objects, pictures, and picture graphs.
      2. Identify, describe, and extend simple patterns (such as circles or triangles) by referring to their shapes, sizes, or colors.
    Mathematical Reasoning
    1. Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:
      1. Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
      2. Use tools and strategies, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
    2. Students solve problems in reasonable ways and justify their reasoning:
      1. Explain the reasoning used with concrete objects and/ or pictorial representations.
      2. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.
     
    Grade One
    By the end of grade one, students understand and use the concept of ones and tens in the place value number system. Students add and subtract small numbers with ease. They measure with simple units and locate objects in space. They describe data and analyze and solve simple problems. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way.
    Number Sense
    1. Students understand and use numbers up to 100:
      1. Count, read, and write whole numbers to 100.
      2. Compare and order whole numbers to 100 by using the symbols for less than, equal to, or greater than (<, =, >).
      3. Represent equivalent forms of the same number through the use of physical models, diagrams, and number expressions (to 20) (e.g., 8 may be represented as 4 + 4, 5 + 3, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2, 10 -2, 11 -3).
      4. Count and group object in ones and tens (e.g., three groups of 10 and 4 equals 34, or 30 + 4).
      5. Identify and know the value of coins and show different combinations of coins that equal the same value.
    2. Students demonstrate the meaning of addition and subtraction and use these operations to solve problems:
      1. Know the addition facts (sums to 20) and the corresponding subtraction facts and commit them to memory.
      2. Use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction to solve problems.
      3. Identify one more than, one less than, 10 more than, and 10 less than a given number.
      4. Count by 2s, 5s, and 10s to 100.
      5. Show the meaning of addition (putting together, increasing) and subtraction (taking away, comparing, finding the difference).
      6. Solve addition and subtraction problems with one-and two-digit numbers (e.g., 5 + 58 = __).
      7. Find the sum of three one-digit numbers.
    3. Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones, tens, and hundreds places:
      1. Make reasonable estimates when comparing larger or smaller numbers.
    Algebra and Functions
    1. Students use number sentences with operational symbols and expressions to solve problems:
      1. Write and solve number sentences from problem situations that express relationships involving addition and subtraction.
      2. Understand the meaning of the symbols +, -, =.
      3. Create problem situations that might lead to given number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
    Measurement and Geometry
    1. Students use direct comparison and nonstandard units to describe the measurements of objects:
      1. Compare the length, weight, and volume of two or more objects by using direct comparison or a nonstandard unit.
      2. Tell time to the nearest half hour and relate time to events (e.g., before/after, shorter/longer).
    2. Students identify common geometric figures, classify them by common attributes, and describe their relative position or their location in space:
      1. Identify, describe, and compare triangles, rectangles, squares, and circles, including the faces of three-dimensional objects.
      2. Classify familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes, such as color, position, shape, size, roundness, or number of corners, and explain which attributes are being used for classification.
      3. Give and follow directions about location.
      4. Arrange and describe objects in space by proximity, position, and direction (e.g., near, far, below, above, up, down, behind, in front of, next to, left or right of).
    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1. Students organize, represent, and compare data by category on simple graphs and charts:
      1. Sort objects and data by common attributes and describe the categories.
      2. Represent and compare data (e.g., largest, smallest, most often, least often) by using pictures, bar graphs, tally charts, and picture graphs.
    2. Students sort objects and create and describe patterns by numbers, shapes, sizes, rhythms, or colors:
      1. Describe, extend, and explain ways to get to a next element in simple repeating patterns (e.g., rhythmic, numeric, color, and shape).
    Mathematical Reasoning
    1. Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:
      1. Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
      2. Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
    2. Students solve problems and justify their reasoning:
      1. Explain the reasoning used and justify the procedures selected.
      2. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
    3. Students note connections between one problem and another.
     
    Grade Two
    By the end of grade two, students understand place value and number relationships in addition and subtraction, and they use simple concepts of multiplication. They measure quantities with appropriate units. They classify shapes and see relationships among them by paying attention to their geometric attributes. They collect and analyze data and verify the answers. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way.
    Number Sense
    1. Students understand the relationship between numbers, quantities, and place value in whole numbers up to 1,000:
      1. Count, read, and write whole numbers to 1,000 and identify the place value for each digit.
      2. Use words, models, and expanded forms (e.g., 45 = 4 tens + 5) to represent numbers (to 1,000).
      3. Order and compare whole numbers to 1,000 by using the symbols <, =, >.
    2. Students estimate, calculate, and solve problems involving addition and subtraction of two-and three-digit numbers:
      1. Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., an opposite number sentence for 8 + 6 = 14 is 14 - 6 = 8) to solve problems and check solutions.
      2. Find the sum or difference of two whole numbers up to three digits long.
      3. Use mental arithmetic to find the sum or difference of two two-digit numbers.
    3. Students model and solve simple problems involving multiplication and division:
      1. Use repeated addition, arrays, and counting by multiples to do multiplication.
      2. Use repeated subtraction, equal sharing, and forming equal groups with remainders to do division.
      3. Know the multiplication tables of 2s, 5s, and 10s (to "times 10") and commit them to memory.
    4. Students understand that fractions and decimals may refer to parts of a set and parts of a whole:
      1. Recognize, name, and compare unit fractions from 1/12 to 1/2.
      2. Recognize fractions of a whole and parts of a group (e.g., one-fourth of a pie, two-thirds of 15 balls).
      3. Know that when all fractional parts are included, such as four-fourths, the result is equal to the whole and to one.
    5. Students model and solve problems by representing, adding, and subtracting amounts of money:
      1. Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills.
      2. Know and use the decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols for money.
    6. Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands places:
      1. Recognize when an estimate is reasonable in measurements (e.g., closest inch).
    Algebra and Functions
    1. Students model, represent, and interpret number relationships to create and solve problems involving addition and subtraction:
      1. Use the commutative and associative rules to simplify mental calculations and to check results.
      2. Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.
      3. Solve addition and subtraction problems by using data from simple charts, picture graphs, and number sentences.
    Measurement and Geometry
    1. Students understand that measurement is accomplished by identifying a unit of measure, iterating (repeating) that unit, and comparing it to the item to be measured:
      1. Measure the length of objects by iterating (repeating) a nonstandard or standard unit.
      2. Use different units to measure the same object and predict whether the measure will be greater or smaller when a different unit is used.
      3. Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch and/ or centimeter.
      4. Tell time to the nearest quarter hour and know relationships of time (e.g., minutes in an hour, days in a month, weeks in a year).
      5. Determine the duration of intervals of time in hours (e.g., 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.).
    2. Students identify and describe the attributes of common figures in the plane and of common objects in space:
      1. Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, sphere, pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.
      2. Put shapes together and take them apart to form other shapes (e.g., two congruent right triangles can be arranged to form a rectangle).
    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1. Students collect numerical data and record, organize, display, and interpret the data on bar graphs and other representations:
      1. Record numerical data in systematic ways, keeping track of what has been counted.
      2. Represent the same data set in more than one way (e.g., bar graphs and charts with tallies).
      3. Identify features of data sets (range and mode).
      4. Ask and answer simple questions related to data representations.
    2. Students demonstrate an understanding of patterns and how patterns grow and describe them in general ways:
      1. Recognize, describe, and extend patterns and determine a next term in linear patterns (e.g., 4, 8, 12 ...; the number of ears on one horse, two horses, three horses, four horses).
      2. Solve problems involving simple number patterns.
    Mathematical Reasoning
    1. Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:
      1. Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
      2. Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
    2. Students solve problems and justify their reasoning:
      1. Defend the reasoning used and justify the procedures selected.
      2. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.
    3. Students note connections between one problem and another.
     
    Grade Three
    By the end of grade three, students deepen their understanding of place value and their understanding of and skill with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. Students estimate, measure, and describe objects in space. They use patterns to help solve problems. They represent number relationships and conduct simple probability experiments. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way.
    Number Sense
    1. Students understand the place value of whole numbers:
      1. Count, read, and write whole numbers to 10,000.
      2. Compare and order whole numbers to 10,000.
      3. Identify the place value for each digit in numbers to 10,000.
      4. Round off numbers to 10,000 to the nearest ten, hundred, and thousand.
      5. Use expanded notation to represent numbers (e.g., 3,206 = 3,000 + 200 + 6).
    2. Students calculate and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division:
      1. Find the sum or difference of two whole numbers between 0 and 10,000.
      2. Memorize to automaticity the multiplication table for numbers between 1 and 10.
      3. Use the inverse relationship of multiplication and division to compute and check results.
      4. Solve simple problems involving multiplication of multidigit numbers by one-digit numbers (3,671 x 3 = __).
      5. Solve division problems in which a multidigit number is evenly divided by a one-digit number (135 ÷ 5 = __).
      6. Understand the special properties of 0 and 1 in multiplication and division.
      7. Determine the unit cost when given the total cost and number of units.
      8. Solve problems that require two or more of the skills mentioned above.
    3. Students understand the relationship between whole numbers, simple fractions, and decimals:
      1. Compare fractions represented by drawings or concrete materials to show equivalency and to add and subtract simple fractions in context (e.g., 1/2 of a pizza is the same amount as 2/4 of another pizza that is the same size; show that 3/8 is larger than 1/4).
      2. Add and subtract simple fractions (e.g., determine that 1/8 + 3/8 is the same as 1/2).
      3. Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of money amounts in decimal notation and multiply and divide money amounts in decimal notation by using whole-number multipliers and divisors.
      4. Know and understand that fractions and decimals are two different representations of the same concept (e.g., 50 cents is 1/2 of a dollar, 75 cents is 3/4 of a dollar).
    Algebra and Functions
    1. Students select appropriate symbols, operations, and properties to represent, describe, simplify, and solve simple number relationships:
      1. Represent relationships of quantities in the form of mathematical expressions, equations, or inequalities.
      2. Solve problems involving numeric equations or inequalities.
      3. Select appropriate operational and relational symbols to make an expression true  (e.g., if 4 __ 3 = 12, what operational symbol goes in the blank?).
      4. Express simple unit conversions in symbolic form (e.g., __ inches = __ feet x 12).
      5. Recognize and use the commutative and associative properties of multiplication (e.g., if 5 x 7 = 35, then what is 7 x 5? and if 5 x 7 x 3 = 105, then what is 7 x 3 x 5?).
    2. Students represent simple functional relationships:
      1. Solve simple problems involving a functional relationship between two quantities (e.g., find the total cost of multiple items given the cost per unit).
      2. Extend and recognize a linear pattern by its rules (e.g., the number of legs on a given number of horses may be calculated by counting by 4s or by multiplying the number of horses by 4).
    Measurement and Geometry
    1. Students choose and use appropriate units and measurement tools to quantify the properties of objects:
      1. Choose the appropriate tools and units (metric and U.S.) and estimate and measure the length, liquid volume, and weight/mass of given objects.
      2. Estimate or determine the area and volume of solid figures by covering them with squares or by counting the number of cubes that would fill them.
      3. Find the perimeter of a polygon with integer sides.
      4. Carry out simple unit conversions within a system of measurement (e.g., centimeters and meters, hours and minutes).
    2. Students describe and compare the attributes of plane and solid geometric figures and use their understanding to show relationships and solve problems:
      1. Identify, describe, and classify polygons (including pentagons, hexagons, and octagons).
      2. Identify attributes of triangles (e.g., two equal sides for the isosceles triangle, three equal sides for the equilateral triangle, right angle for the right triangle).
      3. Identify attributes of quadrilaterals (e.g., parallel sides for the parallelogram, right angles for the rectangle, equal sides and right angles for the square).
      4. Identify right angles in geometric figures or in appropriate objects and determine whether other angles are greater or less than a right angle.
      5. Identify, describe, and classify common three-dimensional geometric objects (e.g., cube, rectangular solid, sphere, prism, pyramid, cone, cylinder).
      6. Identify common solid objects that are the components needed to make a more complex solid object.
     
     
    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability
    1. Students conduct simple probability experiments by determining the number of possible outcomes and make simple predictions:
      1. Identify whether common events are certain, likely, unlikely, or improbable.
      2. Record the possible outcomes for a simple event (e.g., tossing a coin) and systematically keep track of the outcomes when the event is repeated many times.
      3. Summarize and display the results of probability experiments in a clear and organized way (e.g., use a bar graph or a line plot).
      4. Use the results of probability experiments to predict future events (e.g., use a line plot to predict the temperature forecast for the next day).
    Mathematical Reasoning
    1. Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
      1. Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
      2. Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    2. Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
      1. Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
      2. Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
      3. Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
      4. Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
      5. Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
      6. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
    3. Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations:
      1. Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
      2. Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.
      3. Develop generalizations of the results obtained and apply them in other circumstances.
     
    Grade Four
    By the end of grade four, students understand large numbers and addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers. They describe and compare simple fractions and decimals. They understand the properties of, and the relationships between, plane geometric figures. They collect, represent, and analyze data to answer questions. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way. They also recognize how God allows us to use numbers to perform various calculations and appreciate how numbers work.

    Number Sense

    1.Students understand the place value of whole numbers and decimals to two decimal places and how whole numbers and decimals relate to simple fractions. Students use the concepts of negative numbers:
    a.Read and write whole numbers in the millions.
    b.Order and compare whole numbers and decimals to two decimal places.
    c.Round whole numbers through the millions to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, ten thousand, or hundred thousand.
    d.Decide when a rounded solution is called for and explain why such a solution may be appropriate.
    e.Explain different interpretations of fractions, for example, parts of a whole, parts of a set, and division of whole numbers by whole numbers; explain equivalence of fractions.
    f.Write tenths and hundredths in decimal and fraction notations and know the fraction and decimal equivalents for halves and fourths (e.g., 1/2 = 0.5 or .50; 7/4 = 1 3/4 = 1.75).
    g.Write the fraction represented by a drawing of parts of a figure; represent a given fraction by using drawings; and relate a fraction to a simple decimal on a number line.
    h.Use concepts of negative numbers (e.g., on a number line, in counting, in temperature, in "owing").
    i.Identify on a number line the relative position of positive fractions, positive mixed numbers, and positive decimals to two decimal places.
     
    2.Students extend their use and understanding of whole numbers to the addition and subtraction of simple decimals:
    a.Estimate and compute the sum or difference of whole numbers and positive decimals to two places.
    b.Round two-place decimals to one decimal or the nearest whole number and judge the reasonableness of the rounded answer.
    3.Students solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers and understand the relationships among the operations:
    a.Demonstrate an understanding of, and the ability to use, standard algorithms for the addition and subtraction of multi digit numbers.
    b.Demonstrate an understanding of, and the ability to use, standard algorithms for multiplying a multi digit number by a two-digit number and for dividing a multi digit number by a one-digit number; use relationships between them to simplify computations and to check results.
    c.Solve problems involving multiplication of multi digit numbers by two-digit numbers.
    d.Solve problems involving division of multi digit numbers by one-digit numbers.
    4.Students know how to factor small whole numbers:
    1. Understand that many whole numbers break down in different ways (e.g., 12 = 4 x 3 = 2 x 6 = 2 x 2 x 3).
    2. Know that numbers such as 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11 do not have any factors except 1 and themselves and that such numbers are called prime numbers.

    Algebra and Functions

    5.Students use and interpret variables, mathematical symbols, and properties to write and simplify expressions and sentences:
    a.Use letters, boxes, or other symbols to stand for any number in simple expressions or equations (e.g., demonstrate an understanding and the use of the concept of a variable).
    b.Interpret and evaluate mathematical expressions that now use parentheses.
    c.Use parentheses to indicate which operation to perform first when writing expressions containing more than two terms and different operations.
    d.Use and interpret formulas (e.g., area = length x width or A = lw) to answer questions about quantities and their relationships.
    e.Understand that an equation such as y = 3 x + 5 is a prescription for determining a second number when a first number is given.
    6.Students know how to manipulate equations:
    1. Know and understand that equals added to equals are equal.
    2. Know and understand that equals multiplied by equals are equal.

    Measurement and Geometry

    7.Students understand perimeter and area:
    1. Measure the area of rectangular shapes by using appropriate units, such as square centimeter (cm2), square meter (m2), square kilometer (km2), square inch (in2), square yard (yd2), or square mile (mi2).
    2. Recognize that rectangles that have the same area can have different perimeters.
    3. Understand that rectangles that have the same perimeter can have different areas.
    4. Understand and use formulas to solve problems involving perimeters and areas of rectangles and squares. Use those formulas to find the areas of more complex figures by dividing the figures into basic shapes.
    8.Students use two-dimensional coordinate grids to represent points and graph lines and simple figures:
    a.Draw the points corresponding to linear relationships on graph paper (e.g., draw 10 points on the graph of the equation y = 3 x and connect them by using a straight line).
    b.Understand that the length of a horizontal line segment equals the difference of the x- coordinates.
    c.Understand that the length of a vertical line segment equals the difference of the y- coordinates.
    9.Students demonstrate an understanding of plane and solid geometric objects and use this knowledge to show relationships and solve problems:
    a.Identify lines that are parallel and perpendicular.
    b.Identify the radius and diameter of a circle.
    c.Identify congruent figures.
    d.Identify figures that have bilateral and rotational symmetry.
    e.Know the definitions of a right angle, an acute angle, and an obtuse angle. Understand that 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360° are associated, respectively, with 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and full turns.
    f.Visualize, describe, and make models of geometric solids (e.g., prisms, pyramids) in terms of the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices; interpret two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects; and draw patterns (of faces) for a solid that, when cut and folded, will make a model of the solid.
    g.Know the definitions of different triangles (e.g., equilateral, isosceles, scalene) and identify their attributes.
    h.Know the definition of different quadrilaterals (e.g., rhombus, square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid).

    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability

    10.Students organize, represent, and interpret numerical and categorical data and clearly communicate their findings:
    a.Formulate survey questions; systematically collect and represent data on a number line; and coordinate graphs, tables, and charts.
    b.Identify the mode(s) for sets of categorical data and the mode(s), median, and any apparent outliers for numerical data sets.
    c.Interpret one-and two-variable data graphs to answer questions about a situation.
    11.Students make predictions for simple probability situations:
    1. Represent all possible outcomes for a simple probability situation in an organized way (e.g., tables, grids, tree diagrams).
    2. Express outcomes of experimental probability situations verbally and numerically (e.g., 3 out of 4; 3 /4).

    Mathematical Reasoning

    12.Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
    1. Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
    2. Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    13.Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
    1. Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
    2. Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
    3. Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
    4. Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
    5. Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
    6. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
    14.Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations:
    a.Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
    b.Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.
    c.Develop generalizations of the results obtained and apply them in other circumstances.
     
    Grade Five
    By the end of grade five, students increase their facility with the four basic arithmetic operations applied to fractions, decimals, and positive and negative numbers. They know and use common measuring units to determine length and area and know and use formulas to determine the volume of simple geometric figures. Students know the concept of angle measurement and use a protractor and compass to solve problems. They use grids, tables, graphs, and charts to record and analyze data. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way. They also recognize how God allows us to use numbers to perform various calculations and appreciate how numbers work.

    Number Sense

    1.Students compute with very large and very small numbers, positive integers, decimals, and fractions and understand the relationship between decimals, fractions, and percents. They understand the relative magnitudes of numbers:
    a.Estimate, round, and manipulate very large (e.g., millions) and very small (e.g., thousandths) numbers.
    b.Interpret percents as a part of a hundred; find decimal and percent equivalents for common fractions and explain why they represent the same value; compute a given percent of a whole number.
    c.Understand and compute positive integer powers of nonnegative integers; compute examples as repeated multiplication.
    d.Determine the prime factors of all numbers through 50 and write the numbers as the product of their prime factors by using exponents to show multiples of a factor (e.g., 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 = 23 x 3).
    e.Identify and represent on a number line decimals, fractions, mixed numbers, and positive and negative integers.
    2.Students perform calculations and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication and division of fractions and decimals:
    a.Add, subtract, multiply, and divide with decimals; add with negative integers; subtract positive integers from negative integers; and verify the reasonableness of the results.
    b.Demonstrate proficiency with division, including division with positive decimals and long division with multidigit divisors.
    c.Solve simple problems, including ones arising in concrete situations, involving the addition and subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers (like and unlike denominators of 20 or less), and express answers in the simplest form.
    d.Understand the concept of multiplication and division of fractions.
    e.Compute and perform simple multiplication and division of fractions and apply these procedures to solving problems.
     

    Algebra and Functions

    3.Students use variables in simple expressions, compute the value of the expression for specific values of the variable, and plot and interpret the results:
    a.Use information taken from a graph or equation to answer questions about a problem situation.
    b.Use a letter to represent an unknown number; write and evaluate simple algebraic expressions in one variable by substitution.
    c.Know and use the distributive property in equations and expressions with variables.
    d.Identify and graph ordered pairs in the four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
    e.Solve problems involving linear functions with integer values; write the equation; and graph the resulting ordered pairs of integers on a grid.

    Measurement and Geometry

    4.Students understand and compute the volumes and areas of simple objects:
    1. Derive and use the formula for the area of a triangle and of a parallelogram by comparing it with the formula for the area of a rectangle (i.e., two of the same triangles make a parallelogram with twice the area; a parallelogram is compared with a rectangle of the same area by cutting and pasting a right triangle on the parallelogram).
    2. Construct a cube and rectangular box from two-dimensional patterns and use these patterns to compute the surface area for these objects.
    3. Understand the concept of volume and use the appropriate units in common measuring systems (i.e., cubic centimeter [cm3], cubic meter [m3], cubic inch [in3], cubic yard [yd3]) to compute the volume of rectangular solids.
    4. Differentiate between, and use appropriate units of measures for, two-and three-dimensional objects (i.e., find the perimeter, area, volume).
    5.Students identify, describe, and classify the properties of, and the relationships between, plane and solid geometric figures:
    a.Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, and triangles by using appropriate tools (e.g., straightedge, ruler, compass, protractor, drawing software).
    b.Know that the sum of the angles of any triangle is 180° and the sum of the angles of any quadrilateral is 360° and use this information to solve problems.
    c.Visualize and draw two-dimensional views of three-dimensional objects made from rectangular solids.

    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability

    6.Students display, analyze, compare, and interpret different data sets, including data sets of different sizes:
    a.Know the concepts of mean, median, and mode; compute and compare simple examples to show that they may differ.
    b.Organize and display single-variable data in appropriate graphs and representations (e.g., histogram, circle graphs) and explain which types of graphs are appropriate for various data sets.
    c.Use fractions and percentages to compare data sets of different sizes.
    d.Identify ordered pairs of data from a graph and interpret the meaning of the data in terms of the situation depicted by the graph.
    e.Know how to write ordered pairs correctly; for example, ( x, y ).

    Mathematical Reasoning

    7.Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
    1. Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
    2. Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    8.Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
    1. Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
    2. Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
    3. Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
    4. Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
    5. Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
    6. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
    9.Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations:
    a.Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
    b.Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.
    c.Develop generalizations of the results obtained and apply them in other circumstances.
     
    Grade Six
    By the end of grade six, students have mastered the four arithmetic operations with whole numbers, positive fractions, positive decimals, and positive and negative integers; they accurately compute and solve problems. They apply their knowledge to statistics and probability. Students understand the concepts of mean, median, and mode of data sets and how to calculate the range. They analyze data and sampling processes for possible bias and misleading conclusions; they use addition and multiplication of fractions routinely to calculate the probabilities for compound events. Students conceptually understand and work with ratios and proportions; they compute percentages (e.g., tax, tips, interest). Students know about pi and the formulas for the circumference and area of a circle. They use letters for numbers in formulas involving geometric shapes and in ratios to represent an unknown part of an expression. They solve one-step linear equations. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way. They also recognize how God allows us to use numbers to perform various calculations and appreciate how numbers work.

    Number Sense

    1.Students compare and order positive and negative fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers. Students solve problems involving fractions, ratios, proportions, and percentages:
    a.Compare and order positive and negative fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers and place them on a number line.
    b.Interpret and use ratios in different contexts (e.g., batting averages, miles per hour) to show the relative sizes of two quantities, using appropriate notations ( a/b, a to b, a:b ).
    c.Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the value of N if 4/7 = N/ 21, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use cross-multiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse.
    d.Calculate given percentages of quantities and solve problems involving discounts at sales, interest earned, and tips.
    2.Students calculate and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division:
    a.Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of positive fractions and explain why a particular operation was used for a given situation.
    b.Explain the meaning of multiplication and division of positive fractions and perform the calculations (e.g., 5/8 ÷ 15/16 = 5/8 x 16/15 = 2/3).
    c.Solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems, including those arising in concrete situations, that use positive and negative integers and combinations of these operations.
    d.Determine the least common multiple and the greatest common divisor of whole numbers; use them to solve problems with fractions (e.g., to find a common denominator to add two fractions or to find the reduced form for a fraction).

    Algebra and Functions

    3.Students write verbal expressions and sentences as algebraic expressions and equations; they evaluate algebraic expressions, solve simple linear equations, and graph and interpret their results:
    1. Write and solve one-step linear equations in one variable.
    2. Write and evaluate an algebraic expression for a given situation, using up to three variables.
    3. Apply algebraic order of operations and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to evaluate expressions; and justify each step in the process.
    4. Solve problems manually by using the correct order of operations or by using a scientific calculator.
    4.Students analyze and use tables, graphs, and rules to solve problems involving rates and proportions:
    a.Convert one unit of measurement to another (e.g., from feet to miles, from centimeters to inches).
    b.Demonstrate an understanding that rate is a measure of one quantity per unit value of another quantity.
    c.Solve problems involving rates, average speed, distance, and time.
    5.Students investigate geometric patterns and describe them algebraically:
    1. Use variables in expressions describing geometric quantities (e.g., P = 2w + 2l, A = 1/2bh, C = ?d - the formulas for the perimeter of a rectangle, the area of a triangle, and the circumference of a circle, respectively).
    2. Express in symbolic form simple relationships arising from geometry.

    Measurement and Geometry

    6.Students deepen their understanding of the measurement of plane and solid shapes and use this understanding to solve problems:
    1. Understand the concept of a constant such as ?; know the formulas for the circumference and area of a circle.
    2. Know common estimates of ? (3.14; 22/7) and use these values to estimate and calculate the circumference and the area of circles; compare with actual measurements.
    3. Know and use the formulas for the volume of triangular prisms and cylinders (area of base x height); compare these formulas and explain the similarity between them and the formula for the volume of a rectangular solid.
    7.Students identify and describe the properties of two-dimensional figures:
    1. Identify angles as vertical, adjacent, complementary, or supplementary and provide descriptions of these terms.
    2. Use the properties of complementary and supplementary angles and the sum of the angles of a triangle to solve problems involving an unknown angle.
    3. Draw quadrilaterals and triangles from given information about them (e.g., a quadrilateral having equal sides but no right angles, a right isosceles triangle).

    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability

    8.Students compute and analyze statistical measurements for data sets:
    1. Compute the range, mean, median, and mode of data sets.
    2. Understand how additional data added to data sets may affect these computations of measures of central tendency.
    3. Understand how the inclusion or exclusion of outliers affects measures of central tendency.
    4. Know why a specific measure of central tendency (mean, median) provides the most useful information in a given context.
    9.Students use data samples of a population and describe the characteristics and limitations of the samples:
    a.Compare different samples of a population with the data from the entire population and identify a situation in which it makes sense to use a sample.
    b.Identify different ways of selecting a sample (e.g., convenience sampling, responses to a survey, random sampling) and which method makes a sample more representative for a population.
    c.Analyze data displays and explain why the way in which the question was asked might have influenced the results obtained and why the way in which the results were displayed might have influenced the conclusions reached.
    d.Identify data that represent sampling errors and explain why the sample (and the display) might be biased.
    e.Identify claims based on statistical data and, in simple cases, evaluate the validity of the claims.
    10.Students determine theoretical and experimental probabilities and use these to make predictions about events:
    a.Represent all possible outcomes for compound events in an organized way (e.g., tables, grids, tree diagrams) and express the theoretical probability of each outcome.
    b.Use data to estimate the probability of future events (e.g., batting averages or number of accidents per mile driven).
    c.Represent probabilities as ratios, proportions, decimals between 0 and 1, and percentages between 0 and 100 and verify that the probabilities computed are reasonable; know that if P is the probability of an event, 1- P is the probability of an event not occurring.
    d.Understand that the probability of either of two disjoint events occurring is the sum of the two individual probabilities and that the probability of one event following another, in independent trials, is the product of the two probabilities.
    e.Understand the difference between independent and dependent events.

    Mathematical Reasoning

    11.Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
    1. Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
    2. Formulate and justify mathematical conjectures based on a general description of the mathematical question or problem posed.
    3. Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    12.Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
    1. Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
    2. Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
    3. Estimate unknown quantities graphically and solve for them by using logical reasoning and arithmetic and algebraic techniques.
    4. Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
    5. Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
    6. Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
    7. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
    13.Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations:
    a.Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
    b.Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.
    c.Develop generalizations of the results obtained and the strategies used and apply them in new problem situations.
     
    Grade Seven
    By the end of grade seven, students are adept at manipulating numbers and equations and understand the general principles at work. Students understand and use factoring of numerators and denominators and properties of exponents. They know the Pythagorean theorem and solve problems in which they compute the length of an unknown side. Students know how to compute the surface area and volume of basic three-dimensional objects and understand how area and volume change with a change in scale. Students make conversions between different units of measurement. They know and use different representations of fractional numbers (fractions, decimals, and percents) and are proficient at changing from one to another. They increase their facility with ratio and proportion, compute percents of increase and decrease, and compute simple and compound interest. They graph linear functions and understand the idea of slope and its relation to ratio. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way. They also recognize how God allows us to use numbers to perform various calculations and appreciate how numbers work.

    Number Sense

    1.Students know the properties of, and compute with, rational numbers expressed in a variety of forms:
    a.Read, write, and compare rational numbers in scientific notation (positive and negative powers of 10) with approximate numbers using scientific notation.
    b.Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers (integers, fractions, and terminating decimals) and take positive rational numbers to whole-number powers.
    c.Convert fractions to decimals and percents and use these representations in estimations, computations, and applications.
    d.Differentiate between rational and irrational numbers.
    e.Know that every rational number is either a terminating or repeating decimal and be able to convert terminating decimals into reduced fractions.
    f.Calculate the percentage of increases and decreases of a quantity.
    g.Solve problems that involve discounts, markups, commissions, and profit and compute simple and compound interest.
    2.Students use exponents, powers, and roots and use exponents in working with fractions:
    a.Understand negative whole-number exponents. Multiply and divide expressions involving exponents with a common base.
    b.Add and subtract fractions by using factoring to find common denominators.
    c.Multiply, divide, and simplify rational numbers by using exponent rules.
    d.Use the inverse relationship between raising to a power and extracting the root of a perfect square integer; for an integer that is not square, determine without a calculator the two integers between which its square root lies and explain why.
    e.Understand the meaning of the absolute value of a number; interpret the absolute value as the distance of the number from zero on a number line; and determine the absolute value of real numbers.

    Algebra and Functions

    3.Students express quantitative relationships by using algebraic terminology, expressions, equations, inequalities, and graphs:
    a.Use variables and appropriate operations to write an expression, an equation, an inequality, or a system of equations or inequalities that represents a verbal description (e.g., three less than a number, half as large as area A).
    b.Use the correct order of operations to evaluate algebraic expressions such as 3(2x + 5)2.
    c.Simplify numerical expressions by applying properties of rational numbers (e.g., identity, inverse, distributive, associative, commutative) and justify the process used.
    d.Use algebraic terminology (e.g., variable, equation, term, coefficient, inequality, expression, constant) correctly.
    e.Represent quantitative relationships graphically and interpret the meaning of a specific part of a graph in the situation represented by the graph.
    4.Students interpret and evaluate expressions involving integer powers and simple roots:
    a.Interpret positive whole-number powers as repeated multiplication and negative whole-number powers as repeated division or multiplication by the multiplicative inverse. Simplify and evaluate expressions that include exponents.
    b.Multiply and divide monomials; extend the process of taking powers and extracting roots to monomials when the latter results in a monomial with an integer exponent.
    5.Students graph and interpret linear and some nonlinear functions:
    1. Graph functions of the form y = nx2 and y = nx3 and use in solving problems.
    2. Plot the values from the volumes of three-dimensional shapes for various values of the edge lengths (e.g., cubes with varying edge lengths or a triangle prism with a fixed height and an equilateral triangle base of varying lengths).
    3. Graph linear functions, noting that the vertical change (change in y- value) per unit of horizontal change (change in x- value) is always the same and know that the ratio ("rise over run") is called the slope of a graph.
    4. Plot the values of quantities whose ratios are always the same (e.g., cost to the number of an item, feet to inches, circumference to diameter of a circle). Fit a line to the plot and understand that the slope of the line equals the quantities.
    6.Students solve simple linear equations and inequalities over the rational numbers:
    a.Solve two-step linear equations and inequalities in one variable over the rational numbers, interpret the solution or solutions in the context from which they arose, and verify the reasonableness of the results.
    b.Solve multi step problems involving rate, average speed, distance, and time or a direct variation.

    Measurement and Geometry

    7.Students choose appropriate units of measure and use ratios to convert within and between measurement systems to solve problems:
    a.Compare weights, capacities, geometric measures, times, and temperatures within and between measurement systems (e.g., miles per hour and feet per second, cubic inches to cubic centimeters).
    b.Construct and read drawings and models made to scale.
    c.Use measures expressed as rates (e.g., speed, density) and measures expressed as products (e.g., person-days) to solve problems; check the units of the solutions; and use dimensional analysis to check the reasonableness of the answer.
    8.Students compute the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric objects and use the results to find measures of less common objects. They know how perimeter, area, and volume are affected by changes of scale:
    1. Use formulas routinely for finding the perimeter and area of basic two-dimensional figures and the surface area and volume of basic three-dimensional figures, including rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, squares, triangles, circles, prisms, and cylinders.
    2. Estimate and compute the area of more complex or irregular two-and three-dimensional figures by breaking the figures down into more basic geometric objects.
    3. Compute the length of the perimeter, the surface area of the faces, and the volume of a three-dimensional object built from rectangular solids. Understand that when the lengths of all dimensions are multiplied by a scale factor, the surface area is multiplied by the square of the scale factor and the volume is multiplied by the cube of the scale factor.
    4. Relate the changes in measurement with a change of scale to the units used (e.g., square inches, cubic feet) and to conversions between units (1 square foot = 144 square inches or [1 ft2] = [144 in2], 1 cubic inch is approximately 16.38 cubic centimeters or [1 in3] = [16.38 cm3]).
    9.Students know the Pythagorean theorem and deepen their understanding of plane and solid geometric shapes by constructing figures that meet given conditions and by identifying attributes of figures:
    a.Identify and construct basic elements of geometric figures (e.g., altitudes, mid-points, diagonals, angle bisectors, and perpendicular bisectors; central angles, radii, diameters, and chords of circles) by using a compass and straightedge.
    b.Understand and use coordinate graphs to plot simple figures, determine lengths and areas related to them, and determine their image under translations and reflections.
    c.Know and understand the Pythagorean theorem and its converse and use it to find the length of the missing side of a right triangle and the lengths of other line segments and, in some situations, empirically verify the Pythagorean theorem by direct measurement.
    d.Demonstrate an understanding of conditions that indicate two geometrical figures are congruent and what congruence means about the relationships between the sides and angles of the two figures.
    e.Construct two-dimensional patterns for three-dimensional models, such as cylinders, prisms, and cones.
    f.Identify elements of three-dimensional geometric objects (e.g., diagonals of rectangular solids) and describe how two or more objects are related in space (e.g., skew lines, the possible ways three planes might intersect).

    Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability

    10.Students collect, organize, and represent data sets that have one or more variables and identify relationships among variables within a data set by hand and through the use of an electronic spreadsheet software program:
    a.Know various forms of display for data sets, including a stem-and-leaf plot or box-and-whisker plot; use the forms to display a single set of data or to compare two sets of data.
    b.Represent two numerical variables on a scatter plot and informally describe how the data points are distributed and any apparent relationship that exists between the two variables (e.g., between time spent on homework and grade level).
    c.Understand the meaning of, and be able to compute, the minimum, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum of a data set.

    Mathematical Reasoning

    11.Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
    1. Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.
    2. Formulate and justify mathematical conjectures based on a general description of the mathematical question or problem posed.
    3. Determine when and how to break a problem into simpler parts.
    12.Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
    1. Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.
    2. Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.
    3. Estimate unknown quantities graphically and solve for them by using logical reasoning and arithmetic and algebraic techniques.
    4. Make and test conjectures by using both inductive and deductive reasoning.
    5. Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.
    6. Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.
    7. Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.
    8. Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context of the problem.
    13.Students determine a solution is complete and move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations:
    a.Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original situation.
    b.Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.
    c.Develop generalizations of the results obtained and the strategies used and apply them to new problem situations.
    Grade Eight        
    By grade eight, students' mathematical sensitivity should be sharpened. Students need to start perceiving logical subtleties and appreciate the need for sound mathematical arguments before making conclusions. As students progress in the study of mathematics, they learn to distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning; understand the meaning of logical implication; test general assertions; realize that one counterexample is enough to show that a general assertion is false; understand conceptually that although a general assertion is true in a few cases, it is not true in all cases; distinguish between something being proven and a mere plausibility argument; and identify logical errors in chains of reasoning.
    Mathematical reasoning and conceptual understanding are not separate from content; they are intrinsic to the mathematical discipline students master at more advanced levels. Students use their God-given, logical minds to examine these things and to develop an appreciation for how God created our world in such an orderly way. They also recognize how God allows us to use numbers to perform various calculations and appreciate how numbers work.
     
    Algebra
     
    1. Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:
      1. Students use properties of numbers to demonstrate whether assertions are true or false.
     
    1. Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and use the rules of exponents.
    2. Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.
    3. Students simplify expressions before solving linear equations and inequalities in one variable, such as 3(2x-5) + 4(x-2) = 12.
    4. Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for each step.
    5. Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y-intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4). They are also able to sketch the region defined by linear inequality (e.g., they sketch the region defined by 2x + 6y < 4).
    6. Students verify that a point lies on a line, given an equation of the line. Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.
    7. Students understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point.
    8. Students solve a system of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and are able to interpret the answer graphically. Students are able to solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and to sketch the solution sets.
    9.  Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials. Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, by using these techniques.
    10. Students apply basic factoring techniques to second- and simple third-degree polynomials. These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials.
    11. Students simplify fractions with polynomials in the numerator and denominator by factoring both and reducing them to the lowest terms.
    12. Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions. Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.
    13.  Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square.
    14. Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems, and percent mixture problems.
    15. Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions.
    16. Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression.
    17. Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion.
    18. Students know the quadratic formula and are familiar with its proof by completing the square.
    19. Students use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a second-degree polynomial and to solve quadratic equations.
    20. Students graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the x-intercepts.
    21. Students use the quadratic formula or factoring techniques or both to determine whether the graph of a quadratic function will intersect the x-axis in zero, one, or two points.
    22. Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.
    23. Students use and know simple aspects of a logical argument:
      1. Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.
      2. Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.
      3. Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.
    24. Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:
      1. Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.
      2. Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of the real number system and the order of operations have been applied correctly at each step.
      3. Given a specific algebraic statement involving linear, quadratic, or absolute value expressions or equations or inequalities, students determine whether the statement is true sometimes, always, or never.
    25. Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute value.
    26. Students solve systems of linear equations and inequalities (in two or three variables) by substitution, or with graphs.
    27. Students are adept at operations on polynomials, including long division.
    28. Students factor polynomials representing the difference of squares, perfect square trinomials, and the sum and difference of two cubes.
    29. Students demonstrate knowledge of how real and complex numbers are related both arithmetically and graphically. In particular, they can plot complex numbers as points in the plane.
    30. Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide complex numbers.
    31. Students add, subtract, multiply, divide, reduce, and evaluate rational expressions with monomial and polynomial denominators and simplify complicated rational expressions, including those with negative exponents in the denominator.
    32. Students solve and graph quadratic equations by factoring, completing the square, or using the quadratic formula. Students apply these techniques in solving word problems. They also solve quadratic equations in the complex number system.
    33. Students determine whether a specific algebraic statement involving rational expressions, radical expressions, or logarithmic or exponential functions is sometimes true, always true, or never true.
    34. Students use combinations and permutations to compute probabilities.
    35. Students apply the method of mathematical induction to prove general statements about the positive integers.
    36. Students use properties from number systems to justify steps in combining and simplifying functions.
     
    Probability and Statistics
    1. Students know the definition of conditional probability and use it to solve for probabilities in finite sample spaces.
    2. Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of discrete random variables by using them to solve for the probabilities of outcomes, such as the probability of the occurrence of five heads in 14 coin tosses.
    3. Students are familiar with the standard distributions (normal, binomial, and exponential) and can use them to solve for events in problems in which the distribution belongs to those families.
    4. Students determine the mean and the standard deviation of a normally distributed random variable.
    5. Students know the definitions of the mean, median, and mode of a distribution of data and can compute each in particular situations.
    6. Students compute the variance and the standard deviation of a distribution of data.
    7. Students organize and describe distributions of data by using a number of different methods, including frequency tables, histograms, standard line and bar graphs, stem-and-leaf displays, scatterplots, and box-and-whisker plots.
     
     
     
    Reviewed and Approved: May 2014

    Glossary
    absolute value. A number's distance from zero on the number line. The absolute value of -4 is 4; the absolute value of 4 is 4.
    algorithm. An organized procedure for performing a given type of calculation or solving a given type of problem. An example is long division.
    arithmetic sequence. A sequence of elements, a1 , a2 , a3 , . . ., such that the difference of successive terms is a constant ai+1 - ai = k ; for example, the sequence {2, 5, 8, 11, 14, . . .} where the common difference is 3.
    asymptotes. Straight lines that have the property of becoming and staying arbitrarily close to the curve as the distance from the origin increases to infinity. For example, the x- axis is the only asymptote to the graph of sin( x)/x.
    axiom. A basic assumption about a mathematical system from which theorems can be deduced. For example, the system could be the points and lines in the plane. Then an axiom would be that given any two distinct points in the plane, there is a unique line through them.
    binomial. In algebra, an expression consisting of the sum or difference of two monomials (see the definition of monomial), such as 4a-8b.
    binomial distribution. In probability, a binomial distribution gives the probabilities of k outcomes A (or n-k outcomes B) in n independent trials for a two-outcome experiment in which the possible outcomes are denoted A and B.
    binomial theorem. In mathematics, a theorem that specifies the complete expansion of a binomial raised to any positive integer power.
    box-and-whisker plot. A graphical method for showing the median, quartiles, and extremes of data. A box plot shows where the data are spread out and where they are concentrated.
    complex numbers. Numbers that have the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers and i satisfies the equation i2 = -1. Multiplication is denoted by ( a + bi )( c + di ) = ( ac - bd ) + ( ad + bc ) i , and addition is denoted by ( a + bi ) + ( c + di ) = ( a + c ) + ( b + d ) i .
    congruent. Two shapes in the plane or in space are congruent if there is a rigid motion that identifies one with the other (see the definition of rigid motion).
    conjecture. An educated guess.
    coordinate system. A rule of correspondence by which two or more quantities locate points unambiguously and which satisfies the further property that points unambiguously determine the quantities; for example, the usual Cartesian coordinates x, y in the plane.
    cosine. Cos(q) is the x- coordinate of the point on the unit circle so that the ray connecting the point with the origin makes an angle of q with the positive x- axis. When q is an angle of a right triangle, then cos(q) is the ratio of the adjacent side with the hypotenuse.
    dilation. In geometry, a transformation D of the plane or space is a dilation at a point P if it takes P to itself, preserves angles, multiplies distances from P by a positive real number r, and takes every ray through P onto itself. In case P is the origin for a Cartesian coordinate system in the plane, then the dilation D maps the point ( x, y ) to the point ( rx, ry ).
    dimensional analysis. A method of manipulating unit measures algebraically to determine the proper units for a quantity computed algebraically. For example, velocity has units of the form length over time (e.g., meters per second [ m/sec ]), and acceleration has units of velocity over time; so it follows that acceleration has units ( m/sec)/sec = m/(sec2).
    expanded form. The expanded form of an algebraic expression is the equivalent expression without parentheses. For example, the expanded form of ( a + b )2 is a2 + 2ab + b2 .
    exponent. The power to which a number or variable is raised (the exponent may be any real number).
    exponential function. A function commonly used to study growth and decay. It has the form y = ax with a positive.
    factors. Any of two or more quantities that are multiplied together. In the expression 3.712 x 11.315, the factors are 3.712 and 11.315.
    function. A correspondence in which values of one variable determine the values of another.
    geometric sequence. A sequence in which there is a common ratio between successive terms. Each successive term of a geometric sequence is found by multiplying the preceding term by the common ratio. For example, in the sequence {1, 3, 9, 27, 81, . . .} the common ratio is 3.
    histogram. A vertical block graph with no spaces between the blocks. It is used to represent frequency data in statistics.
    inequality. A relationship between two quantities indicating that one is strictly less than or less than or equal to the other.
    integers. The set consisting of the positive and negative whole numbers and zero; for example, {. . . -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 . . .}.
    irrational number. A number that cannot be represented as an exact ratio of two integers. For example, the square root of 2 or p .
    linear expression. An expression of the form ax+b where x is variable and a and b are constants; or in more variables, an expression of the form ax + by + c, ax + by + cz + d, etc.
    linear equation. An equation containing linear expressions.
    logarithm. The inverse of exponentiation; for example, alogax = x.
    mean. In statistics, the average obtained by dividing the sum of two or more quantities by the number of these quantities.
    median. In statistics, the quantity designating the middle value in a set of numbers.
    mode. In statistics, the value that occurs most frequently in a given series of numbers.
    monomial. In the variables x, y, z, a monomial is an expression of the form axm yn zk , in which m, n, and k are nonnegative integers and a is a constant (e.g., 5x2 , 3x2 y or 7x3yz2 ).
    nonstandard unit. Unit of measurement expressed in terms of objects (such as paper clips, sticks of gum, shoes, etc.).
    parallel. Given distinct lines in the plane that are infinite in both directions, the lines are parallel if they never meet. Two distinct lines in the coordinate plane are parallel if and only if they have the same slope.
    permutation. A permutation of the set of numbers {1, 2, . . . , n } is a reordering of these numbers.
    polar coordinates. The coordinate system for the plane based on r , q , the distance from the origin and q , and the angle between the positive x- axis and the ray from the origin to the point.
    polar equation. Any relation between the polar coordinates (r, q ) of a set of points (e.g., r = 2cosq is the polar equation of a circle).
    polynomial. In algebra, a sum of monomials; for example, x2 + 2xy + y2 .
    prime. A natural number p greater than 1 is prime if and only if the only positive integer factors of p are 1 and p. The first seven primes are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17.
    quadratic function. A function given by a polynomial of degree 2.
    random variable. A function on a probability space.
    range. In statistics, the difference between the greatest and smallest values in a data set. In mathematics, the image of a function.
    ratio. A comparison expressed as a fraction. For example, there is a ratio of three boys to two girls in a class (3/2, 3:2).
    rational numbers. Numbers that can be expressed as the quotient of two integers; for example, 7/3, 5/11, -5/13, 7 = 7/1.
    real numbers. All rational and irrational numbers.
    reflection. The reflection through a line in the plane or a plane in space is the transformation that takes each point in the plane to its mirror image with respect to the line or its mirror image with respect to the plane in space. It produces a mirror image of a geometric figure.
    rigid motion. A transformation of the plane or space, which preserves distance and angles.
    root extraction. Finding a number that can be used as a factor a given number of times to produce the original number; for example, the fifth root of 32 = 2 because 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 32).
    rotation. A rotation in the plane through an angle q and about a point P is a rigid motion T fixing P so that if Q is distinct from P, then the angle between the lines PQ and PT(Q) is always q . A rotation through an angle q in space is a rigid motion T fixing the points of a line l so that it is a rotation through q in the plane perpendicular to l through some point on l.
    scalar matrix. A matrix whose diagonal elements are all equal while the non diagonal elements are all 0. The identity matrix is an example.
    scatterplot. A graph of the points representing a collection of data.
    scientific notation. A shorthand way of writing very large or very small numbers. A number expressed in scientific notation is expressed as a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10 (e.g., 7000 = 7 x 103 or 0.0000019 = 1.9 x 10-6 ).
    similarity. In geometry, two shapes R and S are similar if there is a dilation D (see the definition of dilation) that takes S to a shape congruent to R. It follows that R and S are similar if they are congruent after one of them is expanded or shrunk.
    sine. Sin(q) is the y- coordinate of the point on the unit circle so that the ray connecting the point with the origin makes an angle of q with the positive x- axis. When q is an angle of a right triangle, then sin(q) is the ratio of the opposite side with the hypotenuse.
    square root. The square roots of n are all the numbers m so that m2 = n. The square roots of 16 are 4 and -4. The square roots of -16 are 4 i and -4 i .
    standard deviation. A statistic that measures the dispersion of a sample.
    symmetry. A symmetry of a shape S in the plane or space is a rigid motion T that takes S onto itself (T(S) = S). For example, reflection through a diagonal and a rotation through a right angle about the center are both symmetries of the square.
    system of linear equations. Set of equations of the first degree (e.g., x + y = 7 and x - y = 1 ). A solution of a set of linear equations is a set of numbers a, b, c, . . . so that when the variables are replaced by the numbers all the equations are satisfied. For example, in the equations above, x = 4 and y = 3 is a solution.
    translation. A rigid motion of the plane or space of the form X goes to X + V for a fixed vector V.
    transversal. In geometry, given two or more lines in the plane a transversal is a line distinct from the original lines and intersects each of the given lines in a single point.
    unit fraction. A fraction whose numerator is 1 (e.g., 1/ p , 1/3, 1/x). Every nonzero number may be written as a unit fraction since, for n not equal to 0, n = 1/(1/ n ).
    variable. A placeholder in algebraic expressions; for example, in 3x + y = 23, x and y are variables.
    vector. Quantity that has magnitude (length) and direction. It may be represented as a directed line segment.
    zeros of a function. The points at which the value of a function is zero.
     
     
    Language Arts Curriculum
  • Language Arts Curriculum
     
     
     
    St. John’s Philosophy on Language Arts
    God has blessed us with the ability to communicate with the written word.  The Holy Spirit inspired the writers of scripture to tell us all that God wants us to know about Him and His plan for our salvation in written word.  Therefore, the primary reason St. John’s Lutheran School teaches language arts is to help its students become closer to Christ through the study of the Bible and to be better able to communicate the Gospel to others.
     
    Reading and writing are a necessary part of life and the main avenue for learning in most subject areas.  Besides this, many people enjoy reading and writing as an enjoyable pastime.
    The goal of our language arts instruction is that all children become proficient, independent readers.  It is also our goal that students master the structure of the English language on their way to effective writing.  Most of all, they will read, study and derive meaning from the Word of God for the purpose of growing in their faith.
     
     
    LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
     
    Goal A Content Standard: Reading/Literature
     
    Students at St. John's will read and respond to a wide range of writing to build an understanding of written materials, of themselves, of others, and of their Christian perspective.
     
    By the end of grade Four, students will:
    A.4.1 Use effective reading strategies to achieve their purposes in reading.
    1. Use a variety of strategies and word recognition skills, including rereading, finding context clues, applying their knowledge of letter-sound relationships, and analyzing word structures.
    2. Infer the meaning of unfamiliar words in the context of a passage by examining known      words, phrases and structures.
    3. Demonstrate phonemic awareness by using letter/sound relationships as aids to      pronouncing and understanding unfamiliar words and text.
    4. Comprehend reading by using strategies such as activating prior knowledge, establishing purpose, self-correcting and self-monitoring, rereading, making predictions, finding context clues, developing visual images, applying knowledge of text structures, and adjusting reading rate according to purpose and difficulty.
    5. Read aloud with age-appropriate fluency, accuracy, and expression.
    6. Discern how written texts and accompanying illustrations connect to convey meaning.
    7. Identify and use organizational features of texts, such as headings, paragraphs, and format, to improve understanding.
    8. Identify a purpose for reading, such as gaining information, learning about a viewpoint, and appreciating literature.
     
    A.4.2 Read, interpret, and critically analyze literature.
    1. Recognize and recall elements and details of story structure, such as sequence of events, character, plot, and setting, in order to reflect on meaning.
    2. Draw upon a reservoir of reading materials, including fairy tales, fables, and narratives from the United States and cultures worldwide, to understand plots, make predictions, and         relate reading to prior knowledge and experience.
    3. Summarize ideas drawn from stories, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, interpreting events and ideas, and connecting different works to each other and to real-life experiences.
    4. Extend the literal meaning of a text by making inferences, and evaluate the significance and validity of texts in light of prior knowledge and experience.
     
    A.4.3 Read and discuss literary and nonliterary texts in order to understand human           experience.
    1. Demonstrate the ability to integrate general knowledge about the world and familiarity with literary and nonliterary texts when reflecting upon life's experiences.
    2. Identify and summarize main ideas and key points from literature, informational texts, and other print and non-print sources.
    3. Distinguish fiction from nonfiction, realistic fiction from fantasy, biography from autobiography, and poetry from prose.
    4. Select a variety of materials to read for discovery, appreciation, and enjoyment, summarize the readings, and connect them to prior knowledge and experience.
     
    A.4.4 Read to acquire information.
    1. Summarize key details of informational texts, connecting new information to prior knowledge.
    2. Identify a topic of interest then seek information by investigating available text resources.
     
    By the end of grade Eight, students will:
    A.8.1 Use effective reading strategies to achieve their purposes in reading.
    1. Use knowledge of sentence and word structure, word origins, visual images, and context clues to understand unfamiliar words and clarify passages of text.
    2. Use knowledge of the visual features of texts, such as headings and bold face print, and structures of texts, such as chronology and cause-and-effect, as aids to comprehension.
    3. Establish purposeful reading and writing habits by using texts to find information, gain understanding of diverse viewpoints, make decisions, and enjoy the experience of reading.
    4. Select, summarize, paraphrase, analyze, and evaluate, orally and in writing, passages of texts chosen for specific purposes.
     
    A.8.2 Read, interpret, and critically analyze literature.
    1. Identify the defining features and structure of literary texts, such as conflict, representation of character, and point of view.
    2. Analyze the effect of characters, plot, setting, language, topic, style, purpose, and point of view on the overall impact of literature.
    3. Draw on a broad base of knowledge about the genres of literature, such as the structure and conventions of essays, epics, fables, myths, plays, poems, short stories, and novels, when interpreting the meaning of a literary work.
    4. Develop criteria to evaluate literary merit and explain critical opinions about a text, either informally in conversation or formally in a well-organized speech or essay.
     
    A.8.3 Read and discuss literary and nonliterary texts in order to understand human           experience.
    1. Provide interpretive responses, orally and in writing, to literary and nonliterary texts      representing the diversity of American cultural heritage and cultures of the world.
    1. Identify   common historical, social, and cultural themes and issues in literary works and selected passages.
      1. Draw on a broad base of knowledge about the themes, ideas, and insights found in classical literature while reading, interpreting, and reflecting on contemporary texts.
      2. Evaluate the themes and main ideas of a work considering its audience and purpose.
     
    A.8.4 Read to acquire information.
    1. Interpret and use technical resources such as charts, tables, travel schedules, timelines, and manuals.
    2. Compare, contrast, and evaluate the relative accuracy and usefulness of information from different sources.
    3. Identify and explain information, main ideas, and organization found in a variety of      informational passages.
    4. Distinguish between the facts found in documents, narratives, charts, maps, tables and other sources and the generalizations and interpretations that are drawn from them.
     
    Goal B Content Standard: Writing
     
    Students at St. John's will write clearly and effectively to share information and knowledge, to influence and persuade, to create and entertain, while communicating the truths of God’s Word.
     
    By the end of grade Four, students will:
    B.4.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
    1. Write nonfiction and technical pieces (summaries, messages, informational essays, basic directions, instructions, simple reports) that convey essential details and facts and provide accurate representations of events and sequences.
    2. Write expressive pieces in response to reading, viewing, and life experiences (narratives, reflections, and letters) employing descriptive detail and a personal voice.
    3. Write creative pieces (poetry, fiction, and plays) employing basic aesthetic principles appropriate to each genre.
    4. Write in a variety of situations (timed and untimed, at school and at home) and adapt strategies, such as revision and the use of reference materials, to the situation.
    5. Use a variety of writing technologies, including pen and paper as well as computers.
    6. Write for a variety of readers, including peers, teachers, and other adults, adapting content, style, and structure to audience and situation.
     
    B.4.2 Plan, revise, edit, and publish clear and effective writing.
    1. Produce multiple drafts, including finished pieces, that demonstrate the capacity to generate, focus, and organize ideas and to revise the language, organization, and content of successive drafts in order to fulfill a specific purpose for communicating with a specific audience.
    2. Explain the extent and reasons for revision in conference with a teacher.
    3. Given a writing assignment to be completed in a limited amount of time, produce a well-developed, well organized, and effective response in correct English and an appropriate voice.
     
    B.4.3 Understand the function of various forms, structures, and punctuation marks of     standard American English and use them appropriately in communications.
    1. Understand and use parts of speech effectively, including nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs.
    2. Employ principles of agreement related to number, gender, and case.
    3. Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words of sentences.
    4. Use punctuation marks and conjunctions, as appropriate, to separate sentences and connect independent clauses.
    5. Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists.
    6. Spell frequently used words correctly.
    7. Use word order and punctuation marks to distinguish statements, questions, exclamations, and commands.
     
    By the end of grade Eight, students will:
    B.8.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
    1. Write a coherent and complete expository piece, with sufficient detail to fulfill its purpose,      sufficient evidence to support its assertions, language appropriate for its intended audience, and organization achieved through clear coordination and substantiation of ideas.
    2. Write a persuasive piece (such as a letter to a specific person or a script promoting a      particular product) that includes a clear position, a discernible tone, and a coherent argument with reliable evidence.
    3. Write a narrative based on experience that uses descriptive language and detail effectively, presents a sequence of events, and reveals a theme.
    4. Write clear and pertinent responses to verbal or visual material that communicate, explain, and interpret the reading or viewing experience to a specific audience.
    5. Write creative fiction that includes major and minor characters, a coherent plot, effective      imagery, descriptive language, and concrete detail.
    6. Write in a variety of situations (during an exam, in a computer lab) and adapt strategies, such as revision, technology, and the use of reference materials, to the situation.
    7. Use a variety of writing technologies including pen and paper as well as computers.
    8. Write for a variety of readers, including peers, teachers, and other adults, adapting content, style, and structure to audience and situation.
     
    B.8.2 Plan, revise, edit, and publish clear and effective writing.
    1. Produce multiple drafts, including finished pieces, that demonstrate the capacity to generate, focus, and organize ideas and to revise the language, organization, content, and tone of successive drafts in order to fulfill a specific purpose for communicating with a specific audience.
    2. Identify questions and strategies for improving drafts in writing conferences with a teacher.
    3. Given a writing assignment to be completed in a limited amount of time, produce a well-developed, well-organized, and effective response in correct English and an appropriate voice.
     
    B.8.3  Understand the function of various forms, structures, and punctuation marks of     standard American English and use them appropriately in communications.
    1. Understand the function of words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence and use them effectively, including coordinate and subordinate conjunctions, relative pronouns, and comparative adjectives.
    2. Use correct tenses to indicate the relative order of events.
    3. Understand and employ principles of agreement, including subject-verb, pronoun-noun, and preposition-pronoun.
    4. Punctuate compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences correctly.
    5. Employ the conventions of capitalization.
    6. Spell frequently used words correctly and use effective strategies for spelling unfamiliar words.
     
    Goal C Content Standard: Oral Language
     
    Students at St. John's will listen to understand and will speak clearly and effectively for diverse purposes, including sharing the truths of God’s Word.
     
    By the end of grade Four, students will:
    C.4.1  Orally communicate information, opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences      for a variety of purposes.
    1. Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral presentations, including such factors as eye      contact, projection, tone, volume, rate, and articulation.
    2. Read aloud effectively from previously-read material.
    3. Speaking from notes or a brief outline, communicate precise information and accurate      instructions in clearly organized and sequenced detail.
    4. Present autobiographical or fictional stories that recount events to large and small audiences.
    5. Participate in group readings, such as choral, echo, and shadow reading.
    6. Perform dramatic readings and presentations.
    7. Distinguish between fact and opinion and provide evidence to support opinions.
     
    C.4.2 Listen to and comprehend oral communications.
    1. Follow basic directions.
    2. Identify and summarize key points of a story or discussion.
    3. Retell stories and reports of events in proper sequence.
    4. Follow sequence in plot and character development, predict outcomes, and draw conclusions.
    5. Recall the content of stories after hearing them, relate the content to prior knowledge, and         answer various types of factual and interpretive questions about the stories.
    6. Distinguish fact from fantasy and fact from opinion.
    7. Understand increasingly complex sentence structures.
    8. Understand a variety of word structures and forms, such as affixes, roots, homonyms, antonyms, synonyms, and word analogies.
     
    C.4.3 Participate effectively in whole classroom discussions as well as small groups.
    1. Volunteer relevant information, ask relevant questions, and answer questions directly.
    2. Use appropriate eye contact and other nonverbal cues.
    3. Use appropriate strategies to keep a discussion going.
    4. Reflect on the ideas and opinions of others and respond thoughtfully.
    5. Ask for clarification and explanation of unfamiliar words and ideas.
    6. Summarize information conveyed through discussion.
     
    By the end of grade Eight, students will:
    C.8.1 Orally communicate information, opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences      for a variety of purposes.
    1. Share brief impromptu remarks about topics of interest about oneself to others.
    2. Speaking from notes or an outline, relate an experience in descriptive detail, with a sense of timing and decorum appropriate to the occasion.
    3. Perform improvisational speaking.
    4. Perform expressive oral readings of prose, poetry, and drama.
    5. Prepare and conduct interviews.
    6. Present a coherent, comprehensive report on differing viewpoints on an issue, evaluating the content of the material presented, and organizing the presentation in a manner appropriate to the audience.
    7. Differentiate between formal and informal contexts and employ an appropriate style of speaking, adjusting language, gestures, rate, and volume according to audience and purpose.
    8. Observe the appropriate etiquette when expressing thanks and receiving praise.
     
    C.8.2 Listen to and comprehend oral communications.
    1. Summarize and explain the information conveyed in an oral communication, accounting for the key ideas, structure, and relationship of parts to the whole.
    2. Distinguish among purposes for listening, such as gaining information or being entertained, and take notes as appropriate.
    3. Recall significant details and sequence accurately.
    4. Follow a speaker's argument and represent it in notes.
    5. Evaluate the reliability of information in a communication, using criteria based on prior knowledge of the speaker, the topic, and the context and on analysis of logic, evidence,      propaganda devices, and language.
     
    C.8.3 Participate effectively in whole class discussions as well as small groups.
    1. Participate in discussion by listening attentively, demonstrating respect for the opinions of others, and responding responsibly and courteously to the remarks of others. (See Rules of Good Listening)
    2. Explain and advance opinions by citing evidence and referring to sources.
    3. Evaluate the stated ideas and opinions of others, seeking clarification through questions.
    4. Invite ideas and opinions of others into the discussion, responding clearly and tactfully to questions and comments.
    5. Accept and use helpful criticism.
    6. Establish and maintain an open mind when listening to others' ideas and opinions.
    7. Summarize the main points of a discussion, orally and in writing, specifying areas of agreement and disagreement and paraphrasing contributions. (ex. Note-taking – see reference)
    8. Display and maintain facial expressions, body language, and other response cues that indicate respect for the speaker and attention to the discussion.
    9. Attend to the content of discussion rather than the speaker.
    10. Participate in discussion without dominating.
    11. Distinguish between supported and unsupported statements.
     
    Goal D Content Standard: Language
     
    Students at St. John's will apply their knowledge of the nature, grammar, and variation of American English.
     
    By the end of grade Four, students will:
    D.4.1  Develop their vocabulary of words, phrases, and idioms as a means of improving           communication.
    1. Consult dictionaries, thesauruses, and other resources to find and compare definitions, choose among synonyms, and spell words correctly.
    2. Use their knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to interpret and convey the meaning of words.
    3. Identify common figures of speech and use them appropriately.
     
    D.4.2  Recognize and interpret various uses and adaptations of language in social, cultural,           regional, and professional situations, and learn to be flexible and responsive in their        use of English.
    1. Identify various styles and purposes of oral and written language and learn to communicate effectively in commonly occurring situations.
    2. Describe and give examples of variations in American English that appear in different social, cultural, regional, and professional environments.
     
    By the end of grade Eight, students will:
    D.8.1  Develop their vocabulary and ability to use words, phrases, idioms, and various grammatical           structures as a means of improving communication.
    1. Consult dictionaries, thesauruses, handbooks, and grammar texts when choosing words, phrases, and expressions for use in oral and written presentations.
    2. Explain how writers and speakers choose words and use figurative language such as similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, and allusion to achieve specific effects.
    3. Choose words purposefully and evaluate the use of words in communications designed to inform, explain, and persuade.
     
    D.8.2 Recognize and interpret various uses and adaptations of language in social, cultural,           regional, and professional situations, and learn to be flexible and responsive in their        use of English.
    1. Describe how American English is used in various public and private contexts, such as school, home, and work.
    2. Make appropriate choices when speaking and writing, such as formal or informal language, considering the purpose and context of the communication.
    3. Evaluate how audience and context affect the selection and use of words and phrases, including technical terms, slang, and jargon.
     
    Goal E Content Standard: Media and Technology
     
    Students at St. John's will use media and technology critically and creatively to obtain, organize, prepare and share information; to influence and persuade; to entertain and be entertained and to communicate the truths of God’s Word.
    By the end of grade Four, students will:
    E.4.1  Use computers to acquire, organize, analyze, and communicate information.
    1. Operate common computer hardware and software.
    2. Use basic word-processing, graphics, and drawing programs.
    3. Create, store, and retrieve electronic files.
    4. Access information using electronic reference resources, such as library catalog, encyclopedias, almanacs, and indexes.
    5. Generate, send, and retrieve electronic messages.
     
    E.4.2  Make informed judgments about media and products.
    1. Identify the intent or appeal behind products and messages promoted via media.
    2. Recognize basic propaganda techniques.
    3. Identify images and symbols central to particular messages.
     
    E.4.3  Create products appropriate to audience and purpose.
    1. Write news articles appropriate for familiar media.
    2. Create simple advertising messages and graphics appropriate for familiar media.
    3. Prepare, perform, and tape simple radio and television scripts.
    4. Prepare and perform school announcements and program scripts.
     
    E.4.4  Demonstrate a working knowledge of media production and distribution.
    1. Make distinctions between messages presented on radio, television, and in print.
    2. Recognize how messages are adjusted for different audiences.
    3. Identify sales approaches and techniques aimed at children.
     
    E.4.5  Analyze and edit media work as appropriate to audience and purpose.
    1. Generate and edit media work as appropriate to audience and purpose, sequencing the presentation effectively and adding or deleting information as necessary to achieve desired effects.
    2. Provide feedback to (and receive it from) peers about the content, organization, and overall effect of media work.
     
    By the end of grade Eight, students will:
    E.8.1  Use computers to acquire, organize, analyze, and communicate information.
    1. Demonstrate efficient word-processing skills.
    2. Construct and use simple databases.
    3. Use manuals and on-screen help in connection with computer applications.
    4. Perform basic computer operations on various platforms.
    5. Collect information from various on-line sources, such as web pages, news groups, and list serves.
     
    E.8.2  Make informed judgments about media and products.
    1. Recognize common structural features found in print and broadcast advertising.
    2. Identify and explain the use of stereotypes and biases evident in various media.
    3. Compare the effect of particular symbols and images seen in various media.
    4. Develop criteria for selecting or avoiding specific broadcast programs and periodicals.
     
    E.8.3  Create media products appropriate to audience and purpose.
    1. Write informational articles that target audiences of a variety of publications.
    2. Use desktop publishing to produce products such as brochures and newsletters designed for particular organizations and audiences.
    3. Create video and audiotapes designed for particular audiences.
     
    E.8.4  Demonstrate a working knowledge of media production and distribution.
    1. Plan a promotion or campaign that involves broadcast and print media production and distribution.
    2. Analyze how messages may be affected by financial factors such as sponsorship.
    3. Identify advertising strategies and techniques aimed at teenagers.
     
    E.8.5  Analyze and edit media work as appropriate to audience and purpose.
    1. Revise media productions by adding, deleting, and adjusting the sequence and arrangement of information, images, or other content as necessary to improve focus, clarity, or effect.
    2. Develop criteria for comprehensive feedback on the quality of media work and use it during production.
     
    Goal F Content Standard: Research and Inquiry
     
    Students at St. John's will locate and communicate information from a variety of print and non-print materials.
     
    By the end of grade Four, students will:
    F.4.1  Conduct research and inquiry on self-selected or assigned topics, issues, or problems       and use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
    1. Propose research by formulating initial questions, narrowing the focus of a topic, identifying prior knowledge, and developing a basic plan for gathering information.
    2. Conduct research by identifying, locating, exploring, and effectively using multiple sources of information appropriate to the inquiry, including print, non-print, and electronic sources.
    3. Recognize, record, organize, and acknowledge information pertinent to a project, accurately blending discoveries into answers.
    4. Present the results of inquiry, reporting and commenting on the substance and process of learning, orally and in writing, using appropriate visual aids.
     
    By the end of grade Eight, students will:
    F.8.1  Conduct research and inquiry on self-selected or assigned topics, issues, or problems       and use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
    1. Formulate research questions and focus investigation on relevant and accessible sources of information.
    2. Use multiple sources to identify and locate information pertinent to research including      encyclopedias, almanacs, dictionaries, library catalogs, indexes to periodicals, and various electronic search engines.
    3. Conduct interviews, field studies, and experiments and use specialized resources (such as almanacs, fact books, pamphlets, and technical manuals) when appropriate to an investigation.
    4. Compile, organize, and evaluate information, taking notes that record and summarize what has been learned and extending the investigation to other sources.
    5. Review and evaluate the usefulness of information gathered in an investigation.
     
     
    Reviewed and Approved: May 2013 (English/Language/Writing) and May 2018 (Reading)
     
    Social Studies Curriculum
  • Social Studies Curriculum
     
     
     
    Philosophy for teaching Social Studies
    Social Studies is the basic subject of the educational world today. It is the so-called “Bible” by which many educators hope to solve the problems of life. At. St. John’s, the social studies are subservient to the Word of God. We believe that our Lord holds the destiny of all people in His hands, and He so directs their course that even the doings of the ungodly, unconscious of themselves, must contribute to His plan, His glory and the welfare of His kingdom. Within the framework of social studies the child learns to function better in the home, community, state and nation so that he may be fit to meet the problems, issues, and duties confronting him as an American citizen.
     
    At St. John’s we also believe that a Christian is a citizen of two kingdoms, the earthly kingdom and the heavenly kingdom. Furthermore, his citizenship in God’s kingdom will have a profound effect on his citizenship in the earthly kingdom.
     
    Objectives
    The student will:
    1. Be able to interact well with all people, appreciate cultural diversity, and work cooperatively.
    2. Understand his own values and be able to recognize the values of others.
    3. Understand the global community
    4. Be able to connect the past to the present and the future and understand his heritage.
    5. Understand the many structures that make up our social world, such as the family, governmental, social, military, economic, and business.
    6. Understand and accept change, but know that God is unchanging.
    7. Be able to use the skills and tools of the social sciences.
    8. Be able to apply thinking, research, and communication skills to the social sciences.
    9. Be able to function properly as a member of his family, community, state, and nation.
    10. Relate current events to the past, to the future, and to his life.
    11. Understand the relationship between the individual, others, and social systems.
    12. Recognize God’s creation, protection, and preservation of the world and all the people and events of the world.
     
    Social Studies Curriculum
    Kindergarten
     
    By the end of Kindergarten, the student will:
    1. Know about where he/she lives.
      1. Know their address and phone number.
      2. Know what it is like where they live.
      3. Know community helpers.
      4. Recognize God created the earth we live in and takes care of it.
    2. Know things in their life that could change.
      1. Know that families move.
      2. Know that families change in size and how they live
      3. Know that God allows parents to work so they can have food, clothing, and shelter.
      4. Know that although things on earth do change, God is unchanging.
      5. Know that their family is a blessing from God.
    3. Understand that not all people live alike.
      1. Know how others in the class live.
      2. Know about life in other places (rural, urban) and what is important to them.
      3. Know about life in other places in the United States and what is important to them.
      4. Know about life in other places in the world and what is important to them.
      5. Know how others lived in the past and what was important to them.
    4. Understand their responsibilities.
      1. Right now
    1. Respect (social, others, property, authority, and country)
    2. Relationship with our Lord
    3. Responsibilities (learn, grow, develop potential)
      1. In the future
    1. Citizenship (participate and abide by the laws)
    2. Family (Love, relationships)
    3. Career (reward and job satisfaction)
    4. Environment (effects on world)
    1. Know days that are important to them.
      1. Know their birthday.
      2. Know important and historical holidays and why they are important.
    2. Know about Martin Luther.
      1. Become acquainted with the life of Martin Luther.
      2. Be led to appreciate the significance of October 31, Reformation Day.
      3. Be led to understand the three great Biblical doctrines stressed by the Reformation:
    1. God loves us and sent Jesus to be our Savior.
    2. All who believe in Jesus are God’s children and will someday live with Him in heaven.
    3. God gave us the Bible so that we may learn about Jesus and the way to heaven.
    1. Know about Native Americans.
      1. Become acquainted with the Wampanoag Natives, and some of their customs.
      2. Recognize the importance of Squanto to the English settlers.
      3. Recognize that God wants all people to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth.
    2. Know about Thanksgiving
      1. Recognize that the Pilgrims came to America from England on the Mayflower.
      2. Recognize that the Pilgrims welcomed the help of the Native Americans.
      3. Recognize that, out of gratitude to God, the Pilgrims wished to express their thanks by celebrating the First Thanksgiving with the Native Americans.
      4. Recognize that people still celebrate Thanksgiving today.
      5. Understand that as Christians we give thanks to our God for all blessings every day of our lives as well as on Thanksgiving.
    3. Know about presidents.
      1. Recognize that President’s Day is a day to remember our presidents.
      2. Become acquainted with the life of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.
      3. Appreciate our president as a gift from God.
    4. Know about the American flag.
      1. Become acquainted with our nation’s flag.
      2. Become acquainted with the history of our flag, its original 13 stars and stripes to its current 50 stars.
      3. Recognize some public places where our flag is flown.
      4. Appreciate and learn to respect our nation’s flag as a symbol of our nation, a nation given by God’s grace.
      5. Learn to recite the Pledge of Allegiance.
    Social Studies Curriculum
    First Grade
     
    By the end of First Grade, the student will:
    1. Understand how families are similar
      1. Know the meaning of family
      2. Know the roles and responsibilities of parents
      3. Know the roles and responsibilities of children in a family
      4. Know how families earn and spend money
      5. Know the rules of the family
      6. Find several similarities between their families and a family in the past
      7. Know that we belong to the family of God
    2. Understand how families are different
      1. Know about the families of others in the class and what is important to these families
      2. Know about families around the state, country, and world and what is important to these families
      3. Give examples of how daily life is different in another culture
      4. Cite several examples of different customs in another culture
      5. Know about families in history and what was important to these families
      6. Find several similarities between their families and a family in the past
      7. Describe the life of a colonial child
      8. Find several differences between present day life and colonial life
      9. Be able to say how other families are like and not like your family
      10. Tell how location influences where and how a family lives
    3. Understand the history of their family
      1. Be able to learn and tell the history of their mother and father
      2. Be able to learn and tell the history of brothers and sisters and any other important members of your family
      3. Tell two facts about a famous American person
      4. Tell two facts about a historical event
      5. Identify the characteristics of an artifact
      6. Recognize some items as family artifacts
      7. Infer how an artifact might be used and who might use it
    4. Understand their roles and responsibilities in the family
      1. Know how important every member of the family is
      2. Explain the responsibilities of people in positions of authority at home and in school
      3. Know why rules are important
      4. Be able to follow rules and directions of the family
      5. Be able to do your own share
      6. Recognize the importance of keeping your word
      7. Be able to be honest and trustworthy
      8. Be able to cooperate in the activities of the family
      9. Be able to appreciate the contributions of the others in the family
      10. Be able to respect the rights of others in the family
      11. Know what is important to the family
      12. Explain how wants are satisfied in a family
    5. Understand the relationship between the family and other groups of people
      1. Be able to relate your family to your neighborhood, community, state, country, the world, and other groups (such as school, church, and local organizations)
      2. Be able to locate where their family lives on maps of their neighborhood
      3. Be able to identify and recognize the 7 continents of the world and major oceans, and compass points
      4. Distinguish between goods and services
      5. Explain how wants are satisfied by an exchange of resources
      6. Identify consumers
      7. Recognize that many products come from around the world
      8. Explain why we have maps, globes, and aerial views
      9. Describe the uses of maps, globes, and aerial views
      10. Distinguish physical features from those that were made by people
      11. Use models to recreate a familiar location
      12. Identify landforms and bodies of water on a map/globe
      13. Explain how people adapt to the changes in weather and season in a locality
     
    Social Studies Curriculum
    Second Grade
     
    By the end of Second Grade, the student will:
    1. Understand what makes up a neighborhood
      1. Know what a neighborhood is
      2. Be able to read maps of a neighborhood
      3. Know what things are in a neighborhood
      4. Know the geography of a neighborhood (school, businesses, parks, streets, other places…)
      5. Know how a neighborhood is part of a community, state, and country
      6. Know about the history of the neighborhood
      7. Know national symbols which appear in a neighborhood
    2. Understand and use beginning geography tools
      1. Compare a map to a globe
      2. Interpret simple map symbols
      3. Demonstrate how to use a map for way finding
      4. Distinguish among different map types
      5. Use aerial views to identify simple landmarks
      6. Recognize cardinal directions
      7. Identify continents and oceans on a map/globe
      8. Distinguish among various types of landforms
      9. Distinguish among various types of climates
    3. Understand how to work, play, and travel in a neighborhood
      1. Know how to get to and from school and other places
      2. Know who to go to for help
      3. Know about the groups and organizations in the neighborhood
      4. Know how the neighborhood is constantly changing
      5. Know the ways people earn a living in the neighborhood
      6. Know recreation in the neighborhood
      7. Distinguish between consumers and producers
      8. Explain the differences between barter and money systems
      9. Explain how barter and money facilitate exchanges
    4. Understand neighborhoods throughout the world
      1. Know about neighborhoods throughout the state
      2. Know about neighborhoods throughout the county
      3. Know about neighborhoods throughout in other countries
      4. Know about neighborhoods in history
      5. Be able to compare the neighborhoods of others to your own
      6. Identify an elected official in the local community, In Wisconsin and in the United States
      7. List several ways that citizens demonstrate respect for positions of authority
      8. Define scarcity
      9. Identify the resources needed for a product
      10. Identify different types of transportation and communication links between communities
      11. Compare the customs of another culture to their own
    5. Understand the responsibilities of living in a neighborhood
      1. Be able to cooperate for the good of all
      2. Be able to help to make things happen
      3. Be able to respect the rights and property of others
      4. Be able to help the neighborhood succeed
      5. Be able to care for the neighborhood (environmentally and ecologically)
      6. Define rights, responsibilities, and privileges
     
    Social Studies Curriculum
    Third Grade
     
    By the end of Third Grade, the student will:
    1. Understand what makes up a community/regions of the United States
      1. Know how a community is governed
      2. Know how a community is governed
      3.  Know about the finances (resources, goods, taxes) of a community
      4. Know about the history of your community and correctly interpret a sequence of historical events on a simple timeline
      5. Know the importance of businesses and services in a community
    2. Understand the geography of the community/regions of the United States
      1. Be able to read and make maps of a community
      2. Know how a community relates to a state and country
      3. Know how a community is affected by its geographical location
      4. Locate their community, town, county, Wisconsin, continents, oceans, the United States, the equator, the poles, and the prime meridian on a map and a globe
      5. Use maps to gather specific information
      6. Construct a map
      7. Relate directional words to cardinal locations
      8. Create, explain, and follow a mental map route to a particular place
      9. Locate different landforms and climate regions on a map/globe
      10. Explain in simple terms how landforms are created and change
      11. Explain how an author’s point-of-view influences a historical account
    3. Understand how to be a part of a community/region of the United States
      1. Explain how goods get transported to and from their community
      2. Know how to travel throughout a community
      3. Know the importance of the rules (laws and expectations) of a community and be able to follow the rules of your community
      4. Know how a community’s needs are met (services)
      5. Know about the groups, clubs, and organizations in the community
      6. Know how the community is constantly changing
      7. Weight the costs and benefits related to choices
      8. Explain the differences between barter and money systems and how they facilitate exchanges
      9. List other media employed to facilitate exchanges (e.g. credit cards, checks)
    4. Understand the similarities and differences in regional and worldwide communities
      1. Be able to relate their community to communities throughout the state
      2. The United States
      3. In other countries
      4. Know how communities in history were similar and different from communities today
      5. List several customs observed in our country (community) and tell where those customs originated
      6. Identify and explain differences in dress, food, and ways of life among human settlements
      7. Explain how an author’s point-of-view influences a historical account
      8. State differences and similarities between a child’s daily life today and that of a child in pioneer times
    5. Understand the responsibilities and benefits of living in regional and worldwide communities
      1. Be able to follow the rules (laws and expectations) of the community
      2. Be able to respect the rights and property of others
      3. Be able to participate in a community to make a difference (volunteer, cooperate, do their share)
      4. Know what is important to a community (pride and culture)
      5. Be able to fulfill their responsibilities as a member of a community
      6. Explain that elected officials have a responsibility to represent the interests of the people who elected them
      7. Explain responsibilities of elected leaders
      8. Explain the necessity for rules and laws to protect individual’s rights
      9. Differentiate between rights, responsibilities, and privileges
      10. List three responsibilities of an American citizen
      11. Identify differences between imports and exports of a community and our country
      12. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of importing and exporting
      13. Choose five famous Americans and relate each to a historical event
      14. Identify early European settlements in early American/Wisconsin history
     
    Social Studies Curriculum
    Fourth and Fifth Grades
     
    By the end of Fifth Grade, the student will have completed the following two cycles of study, and will:
    Cycle 1
    1. Possess a visual sense of our world.
      1. Be able to use a globe to clarify their knowledge of the world.
      2. Be able to use maps to show land and water forms.
      3. Be able to sue maps to show different regions of the world.
      4. Be able to use topical maps that show specific information.
      5. Be able to use map legends.
      6. Be able to picture the world’s major land masses and oceans.
    2. Understand how living in a geographical region affects how people live.
      1. Know how climate affects the way people live.
      2. Know how regional situations affect the way people live.
      3. Know how the availability of natural resources affects the way people live.
      4. Know how people and the environment interact.
      5. Be able to compare life in various parts of the world with your own.
    3. Understand that people are dependent on one another for goods and services.
      1. Know where our food, clothing, and shelter come from in various regions.
      2. Know which goods and services are produced and delivered in various regions.
      3. Know how production of goods and services affects the environment.
     
    State History
    1. Understand key influences which shaped and still shape Wisconsin.
      1. Know about cultures throughout history in WI.
      2. Know about the daily life of people in history in WI.
      3. Know about key people, events, inventions, and discoveries in WI.
      4. Know significant aspects of state and local government.
    2. Possess a mental timeline of history in Wisconsin.
      1. Be able to place key influences on a timeline.
      2. Possess a logical sense of what life was like when key influences occurred.
      3. Know causes and effects of key influences.
    3. Possess a mental map of your state.
      1. Be able to interpret maps of your state and the world.
      2. Be able to develop charts and maps to depict change over time.
      3. Be able to relate charts and maps to your life.
     
    Cycle 2 (U.S. History):
    1. Understand key influences in United States history and how they shape our lives today.
      1. Know key people and events throughout U.S. history.
      2. Know key discoveries and inventions throughout U.S. history.
      3. Know current and past cultures of the U.S.
      4. Be able to describe key influences from the perspectives in which they occurred.
      5. Be able to relate key influences to your life.
      6. Be able to state and support opinions regarding key events, people, inventions, and discoveries.
    2. Possess a mental timeline of key influences on U.S. history.
      1. Be able to place key influences on a timeline.
      2. Possess a logical sense of what life was like when key influences occurred.
      3. Know cause and effects of key influences.
    3. Understand the life of the first Americans.
      1. Know where various Native American tribes lived.
      2. Know about the food, clothing, and shelter of various tribes.
      3. Know about the culture of Native Americans.
      4. Be able to view the life of Native Americans from their perspective.
      5. Know about Native Americans who lived and/or live in your region.
    4. Be able to use visual skills to help you to understand U.S. history.
      1. Be able to use maps which show key information such as population, resources, movement, and battles.
      2. Know how and why the geography of the U.S. has changed through history.
     
    Social Studies Curriculum
    Sixth-Eighth Grade
     
    By the end of Eighth Grade, the student will have completed the following three cycles of study, and will:
     
    Cycle 1 (World History)
    1. Understand key influences which shaped and still shape our world.
      1. Know how and where key civilizations were formed.
      2. Know about key world cultures throughout history.
      3. Know about the daily life of people at various points in history.
      4. Know about key people, events, inventions, and discoveries in the world, including motivation and impact.
    2. Possess a mental timeline of world history.
      1. Know how to place key influences on a timeline.
      2. Possess a logical sense of what life was like when key influences occurred.
      3. Know causes and effects of key influences.
    3. Possess a mental map of the world.
      1. Be able to interpret maps and charts of the world.
      2. Be able to make maps to show information such as population, movement, resources, and battles.
      3. Be able to use maps to depict change over time.
     
    Cycle 2 (World Geography):
    1. Possess a mental map of the physical characteristics of the world.
      1. Be able to use a globe to show your knowledge of the world.
      2. Be able to use maps to show land and water forms.
      3. Be able to use topical maps that show specific information.
      4. Be able to use latitude and longitude to locate.
      5. Be able to state and support opinions about the earth based on globes, maps, and graphs.
    2. Understand how geography has shaped and changed cultures throughout history.
      1. Know physical characteristics of the world which have been key influences in shaping cultures:
    1. know the regions of the world and the culture of the people in each region
    2. know the mountain ranges and water masses of the world and how they affect people
    3. know about the climate of the world and how it has affected people
    4. know about the natural resources of the world and how they have affected people
    5. know about great boundaries of the world and how they have affected people
      1. Be able to compare the cultures of others with your own and relate cultures to geographical settings.
    1. Understand how various cultures have shaped and changed our world’s geography.
      1. Know how the earth has changed physically, including causes and effects.
      2. Know how different cultures have changed the world’s geography:
    1. physically
    2. environmentally
    3. ecologically
    4. technologically
      1. Know techniques and strategies which have been used to protect and manage the environment.
      2. Be able to predict future changes in the earth.
     
    Cycle 3 (Early U.S. History):
    1. Understand key influences which shaped our early country.
      1. Know about the groups that inhabited the early United States.
      2. Know about the cultures of early Americans, including beliefs, values, accepted behaviors, and environment.
      3. Know about the daily life in early United States history.
      4. Know about key foreign and domestic events, people, inventions, and discoveries.
      5. Know motivations and forces which led to change in early United States history.
    2. Possess a chronological perspective of early United States history.
      1. Be able to place key influences on a timeline.
      2. Be able to relate influences to what was happening just before, during and after the influences.
      3. Possess a logical sense of progression of early United States history.
    3. Be able to view early United States history from various perspectives.
      1. Be able to describe key influences from different perspectives.
      2. Know what was important to various groups in early United States history.
      3. Know how key influences changed the lives of various groups in early United States history.
    4. Understand the relationship between human culture and early United States history.
      1. Know how culture affected early United States history.
      2. Know how history affected the culture of the United States.
    Know the basic precepts of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
     
     
    Reviewed and Approved: May 2017
     
    Science Curriculum
  • Science Curriculum
     
      
    Philosophy for Teaching Science
    The purpose of teaching science at St. John’s Lutheran School is to supplement the secular programs of earth, physical and life science with the following objectives:
     
    Objectives
    1. The child will come to know that God created man in His image; man is the crown of creation.
    2. The child will come to know that man has been told by God to subdue and have dominion over the earth, to appreciate and protect it.
    3. The child will come to know principles or laws of nature that God has established.
    4. The child will come to know the scientific method of approach to learn about the world and evaluate the facts from a Biblical standpoint.
    5. The student will come to know scientific facts are not in conflict with God’s Word, only unprovable theories are.
     
    Science Standards
    Kindergarten
    Course Content and Abilities:
    1. Develop abilities in science.
      1. think clearly and solve problems about science (classify, decide, estimate, compare)
      2. Talk and write clearly about science (present, persuade, collaborate, explain)
      3. Make careful plans and use them (brainstorm, envision, research, plan, organize)
    2. Be able to apply science knowledge and skills to a variety of purposes.
      1. Be able to solve problems using the scientific method (research, hypothesis, experimentation, findings, and conclusion).
      2. Be able to conduct research (field, library, experimentation)
      3. Be able to use scientific equipment appropriately (safely, effectively, and accurately).
      4. Know how to preserve the earth (reuse, recycle, reduce, refuse).
      5. Possess technical skills:  listen, dictate, write, and present – charts, instructions.
    3. Know the five senses and how they help us.
      1. Know about seeing
      2. Know about smelling
      3. Know about touching
      4. Know about hearing
      5. Know about tasting
      6. Know about the visible parts of the body (head, arms, shoulders, legs, knees, toes, fingers).
    4. Know about common plants.
      1. Know different common plants (trees, flowers, grass, local, of special interest).
      2. Know where common plants grow.
      3. Know about the care of common plants.
    5. Know about common animals.
      1. Know different common animals (farm, pets, zoo, local, of special interest).
      2. Know where common animals live.
      3. Know how different animals move.
    6. Know our physical environment
      1. Know how air is all around us.
      2. Know how the earth is made up of land and water.
      3. Know how we need to care for the air, land, and water.
      4. Know the names and the order of the four seasons.
      5. Know the weather in each season in our area.
      6. Know that the earth is part of a solar system with other planets.
     
    Science Standards
    Grades 1-3
    By the end of grade three the child will have developed the following abilities:
     
    1. Develop abilities in science.
      1. Higher thinking (analyze, evaluate, classify, predict, decide, estimate, generalize, compare, solve, and simplify).
      2. Communications (present, persuade, collaborate, explain, and recommend).
      3. Goal setting/attainment (brainstorm, envision, research, plan, organize).
    2. Be able to apply science knowledge and skills to a variety of purposes.
      1. Be able to solve problems (research, hypothesis, experimentation, finding, and conclusion).
      2. Be able to conduct research (field, library, and experimentation).
      3. Be able to use scientific equipment (safely, effectively, accurately)
      4. Know how to preserve the earth (reuse, recycle, reduce, and refuse)
      5. Possess technical skills:  read/write/present – instructions, charts, proposals, lab reports, summaries).
      6. Technology skills:  word processing, Internet, AV production.
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Be able to use some scientific instruments (magnets, magnifying glasses, thermometers).
      1. Be able to take care of magnets, magnifying glasses, and thermometers.
      2. Know the types of magnets (horseshoe, U-shaped, bar, and circle).
      3. Know that the magnetic field is stronger at the poles.
      4. Know what a magnifying glass is and some common uses.
      5. Know what a thermometer is and some common uses.
      6. Be able to read a Celsius or Fahrenheit thermometer.
      7. Be able to read a rain gauge.
    2. Understand similarities and differences between living and nonliving things.
      1. Know that living things breathe, eat, move, and grow.
      2. Know that nonliving things do not breathe, eat, move, or grow.
      3. Be able to tell living and nonliving things apart.
    3. Be able to use the knowledge of the earth (sun, moon, year, day, light/dark, surface).
      1. Know about the earth, sun, and the moon.
      2. Know the earth rotates every 24 hours.
      3. Know the difference between day and night.
      4. Know the earth revolves around the sun.
      5. Know the moon revolves around the earth.
      6. Know how the earth is made up of land and water.
      7. Know the types of land surfaces (topsoil, sand, clay, rock).
      8. Be able to put different types of rocks and minerals in groups.
    4. Understand a rainforest ecosystem.
      1. Know a variety of rainforest animals.
      2. Know a variety of rainforest plants.
      3. Know how human interaction affects the rainforest.
      4. Know the importance of the rainforest to humans.
    5. Understand the components of various plant and animal habitats.
      1. Know the components of habitats (food, water, space, shelter).
      2. Know about desert environment.
      3. Know about woods environment.
      4. Know about pond environment.
      5. Know about ocean environment.
      6. Know how we can help our environment.
     
    Course Content and Abilities:
    1. Be able to use knowledge of plants.
      1. Know the parts of plants (roots, stem leaves, and flower).
      2. Know that seeds produce plants.
      3. Be able to put plants in groups by what they have in common.
    2. Understand how plants grow.
      1. Know the changes in a plant as it grows.
      2. Know the foods that are obtained from the parts of the plants.
      3. Know ways to grow a new plant (bulb, seed, cutting).
      4. Know requirements for plant growth.
    3. Be able to identify and classify the animals and animal groups.
      1. Know animals that are mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.
      2. Be able to classify animals that are mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.
      3. Be able to compare conditions when dinosaurs lived with the conditions in which animals of today live.
      4. Know about dinosaurs.
      5. Know theories about why dinosaurs became extinct.
    4. Understand how light, sound, and force work.
      1. Be able to classify sounds by loud or soft and pleasant or unpleasant.
      2. Know that sound is caused by objects that vibrate.
      3. Know that sound travels through our ears.
      4. Know sources of light.
      5. Know that light helps us see.
      6. Know what force is (push and pull).
      7. Know about friction (rough, smooth, ease of movement over varied surfaces).
    5. Understand how weather affects our lives.
      1. Be able to use a thermometer to tell temperature.
      2. Know ways that weather can be harmful.
      3. Know how weather affects plants, animals, and people.
      4. Know the things that make up the weather.
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Understand plants and their processes.
      1. Be able to group plants as either seed or nonseed.
      2. Be able to tell different types of seed plants apart.
      3. Know that flowering plants have two kinds of seeds (monocot, dicot).
      4. Know that seed plants with cover are identified by their needles and type of cone.
      5. Know the four types of nonseed plants and how they reproduce.
      6. Know examples of nonseed plants.
      7. Know what the plant needs to make food.
      8. Know the purpose of chlorophyll.
      9. Be introduced to photosynthesis.
    2. Understand ecosystems and how plants and animals adapt to survive according to how God created them.
      1. Know what animals need to survive (reproduction, food, shelter, water, survival techniques).
      2. Know what plants need to survive (water, sun, nutrients, and pollination).
      3. Be able to describe an ecosystem.
      4. Know how communities affect each other.
      5. Know how communities depend on each other.
      6. Know how adaptations help animals and plants survive.
      7. Know and give examples of behavioral adaptations (migration, hibernation).
    3. Be able to identify the basic types of force (magnetism, gravity, electrical) and energy (electrical, solar, wind, motion, light, and heat).
      1. Know magnetism has poles.
      2. Be able to apply knowledge that magnetism is a force.
      3. Be able to apply knowledge that electricity is a force.
      4. Know the basic elements of magnetism, gravity, and friction.
      5. Know the basic elements of energy.
    4. Be able to observe, classify and explain the properties, states, and changes of matter.
      1. Know the three states of matter.
      2. Know how matter can change.
      3. Know the properties of each state of matter.
      4. Know the movement of molecules in each state.
     
     
    1. Understand the basics of certain human body systems.
      1. Know about the muscular system.
      2. Know about the skeletal system.
      3. Know about the integumentary system (skin).
      4. Know about the circulatory system.
      5. Know about the respiratory system.
      6. Know about the digestive system.
     
    Science Standards
    Grades 4-5
    By the end of grade five the child will have developed the following abilities:
    1. Develop abilities in science.
      1. Higher thinking (analyze, evaluate, classify, predict, decide, estimate, generalize, compare, solve, and simplify).
      2. Communications (present, persuade, collaborate, explain, and recommend).
      3. Goal setting/attainment (brainstorm, envision, research, plan, organize).
    2. Be able to apply science knowledge and skills to a variety of purposes.
      1. Be able to solve problems (research, hypothesis, experimentation, findings, and conclusion).
      2. Be able to conduct research (field, library, and experimentation).
      3. Be able to use scientific equipment (safely, effectively, accurately)
      4. Know how to preserve the earth (reuse, recycle, reduce, and refuse)
      5. Possess technical skills:  read/write/present – instructions, charts, proposals, lab reports, summaries).
      6. Technology skills:  word processing, Internet, AV production.
     
     
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Understand food chains and food webs.
      1. Be able to distinguish between producers and consumers.
      2. Know about an ocean food chain.
      3. Know about a land food chain.
      4. Know the interdependence of a food chain.
      5. Know how nature and people affect a food web.
    2. Understand the characteristics and uses of the six simple machines.
      1. Know characteristics and uses of the inclined plane and wedge.
      2. Know characteristics and uses of the screw.
      3. Know characteristics and uses of the pulley.
      4. Know characteristics and uses of the lever.
      5. Know characteristics and uses of the wheel and axle.
      6. Know how simple machines make work easier and faster.
      7. Be able to identify simple machines within a complex machine.
      8. Be able to combine simple machines to make a complex machine.
    3. Understand the characteristics of light and sound.
      1. Be able to identify sources of light.
      2. Know how the reflection, absorption, and transmission of light affect an object’s appearance.
      3. Know how flat and curved mirrors affect light.
      4. Know how objects refract light.
      5. Know how light waves are different from sound waves.
      6. Know how light and sound waves travel.
    4. Understand the causes of weather.
      1. Know how regional situations affect weather.
      2. Know how elevation affects weather.
      3. Know how angle of the sun affects weather.
      4. Know how air flow affects weather.
      5. Know how latitude affects weather.
      6. Know how air pressure affects weather.
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Understand the processes that all living things share.
      1. Know the methods that plants and animals use to get food.
      2. Be able to apply knowledge that all living things grow and/or regenerate cells.
      3. Be able to apply knowledge that cells are the basic unit of all living things.
      4. Be able to apply knowledge that all living things need air, food, and water.
      5. Be able to apply knowledge that all living things reproduce.
      6. Be able to apply knowledge that all living things release energy.
      7. Know basic processes of plants (photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration).
    2. Understand the basics of electricity (how generated, how conducted, uses, how transported, limitations, effects on environment).
      1. Know static and current electricity.
      2. Know the difference between conductors and insulators.
      3. Know the difference between open and closed circuits and parallel and series circuits.
      4. Know about our use of electricity.
    3. Understand the basics of magnetism.
      1. Know terms magnet and electromagnetism.
      2. Know how a magnet works.
    4. Understand the concepts of force and motion.
      1. Know the terms motion, inertia, friction, buoyancy, and gravity.
      2. Know the difference between the types of motion.
      3. Know Newton’s laws of motion.
      4. Know how friction may be useful and a problem.
      5. Know how everything is affected by gravity.
    5. Understand the earth’s surface and changes that affect it.
      1. Know the layers that form the earth’s crust.
      2. Know characteristics of each layer.
      3. Be able to identify examples of various layers of the earth’s crust.
      4. Know how the various layers were formed.
      5. Know how wind, water, time and geological shifts affect the earth’s surface.
      6. Know how humans change the earth’s surface.
     
    Science Standards
    Grades 6-8
    By the end of grade 8, the child will have developed the following abilities:
     
    1. Develop abilities in science.
      1. Higher thinking (analyze, evaluate, classify, predict, decide, estimate, generalize, compare, solve, and simplify).
      2. Communications (present, persuade, collaborate, explain, and recommend).
      3. Goal setting/attainment (brainstorm, envision, research, plan, organize).
    2. Be able to apply science knowledge and skills to a variety of purposes.
      1. Be able to solve problems (research, hypothesis, experimentation, finding, and conclusion).
      2. Be able to conduct research (field, library, and experimentation).
      3. Be able to use scientific equipment (safely, effectively, and accurately).
      4. Apply knowledge of the relationship between humans, the environment, and the earth’s resources (pollution, conservation) to improve the environment.
      5. Possess technical skills:  read/write/present – instructions, charts, proposals, lab reports, summaries, tables.
      6. Technology skills:  word processing, Internet, search tools, AV production.
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Understand how plants and animal species interact with their environment.
      1. Know how energy flows through food chains and food webs.
      2. Know the cycles (water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen).
      3. Know the factors that affect populations in a given environment (plant and animal responses and adaptations).
      4. Know how organisms become extinct.
    2. Understand the building blocks of matter (atoms, elements, molecules, compounds).
      1. Know the parts of an atom (neutron, proton, and electron).
      2. Know the terms atom, molecule, element, and compound.
      3. Know how elements are organized on a periodic chart.
      4. Know what chemical formulas and symbols are.
      5. Know the difference between a chemical and physical change.
      6. Know about acids and bases.
    3. Understand various forms of energy (fossil, wing, nuclear, geothermal, light, sound, electricity).
      1. Know sound energy (waves, behavior, uses).
      2. Know electrical energy (production and uses).
      3. Know light energy (spectrum, nature, behavior, uses).
      4. Know renewable and nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels, wind, nuclear, solar, and geothermal).
      5. Know the efficiency and effects of each form of energy (fossil fuels, solar, wind, nuclear).
    4. Understand the relationship between the various bodies in the universe.
      1. Know the types of bodies in the solar system (sun, moons, planets, comets, asteroids, meteors).
      2. Know the instruments used by astronomers (reflecting, refracting and radio telescopes and spectroscope).
      3. Know the life cycle of a star.
      4. Know the characteristics of quasars, pulsars, black holes, constellations, and galaxies.
      5. Know about the planets in our solar system (relationship to sun and characteristics).
      6. Know about space and human accomplishments (history of exploration, discoveries, help to humankind).
    5. Understand food chains and human effect on them.
      1. Know components and illustration of a basic food chain.
      2. Know difference between decomposer, producer, and consumer.
      3. Know how food chains relate to food webs and energy pyramids.
      4. Know how parts of food chain affect the energy flow.
      5. Know the effects of human interference on the food chain.
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Understand how life exists on earth.
      1. Know that living things need energy, food, water, oxygen, living space, and proper temperature.
      2. Know the relationship between the components of life.
      3. Be able to apply knowledge that the sun is the initial source of all energy.
    2. Understand that the cell is the basic unit of life.
      1. Know the cell theory.
      2. Know parts and functions of plant and animal cells.
      3. Know cell division and reproduction.
      4. Know examples of organisms that reproduce sexually and asexually.
      5. Know advantages and disadvantages of both sexual and asexual reproduction.
      6. Know processes of sexual and asexual reproduction.
      7. Know stages of development in sexual and asexual reproduction.
    3. Be able to classify and identify living organisms using their characteristics.
      1. Know the seven levels of the classification system.
      2. Know characteristics of plant, animal, protoctista, monera, and fungi kingdoms.
    4. Understand the interrelationship between living things and their environment.
      1. Know the needs to live in an environment.
      2. Know about producers, consumers, and decomposers.
      3. Know mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, and commensalisms.
      4. Know cyclic responses to the environment (hibernation, migration, adaptation, dormancy).
      5. Know habitat, niche, ecosystem, community, and population.
      6. Know about human effects on the environment.
    5. Be able to use a microscope.
      1. Know parts and functions of a microscope.
      2. Be able to create a wet mount slide.
      3. Be able to focus the microscope and observe a slide.
      4. Be able to use a microscope to examine life forms.
    6. Be able to project scientific concepts into the future.
      1. Know principles of cryogenics (deep freezing).
      2. Know about the possibility of extra-terrestrial life.
      3. Be able to explain the necessity of ethical standards in future scientific discoveries.
      4. Know pros and cons of organ transplants.
      5. Know about cloning and its potential pros and cons.
        G.  Know about the systems of the human body.
                   1.   Learn and practice the life saving techniques for CPR and AED use
     
    Course Content and Abilities
    1. Understand terms relevant to earth science.
      1. Be able to define the terms in simple language.
      2. Be able to relate terms to a concrete example.
    2. Be able to use the physical and chemical composition to classify rocks and minerals.
      1. Be able to identify common minerals.
      2. Be able to identify the three rock groups.
      3. Be able to use physical characteristics for identification purposes.
      4. Be able to identify rocks and minerals by using reference materials.
      5. Know uses of rocks and minerals.
    3. Understand the uniqueness of the earth and its ongoing process of development.
      1. Be able to identify landforms.
      2. Know about the forces that change the shape of the earth.
      3. Know how humans change the shape of the earth.
      4. Be able to predict future changes.
    4. Understand the factors of weather and the importance of weather to life.
      1. Know the components of air.
      2. Know the effects of heat on weather.
      3. Know factors that affect humidity.
      4. Know causes and effect of air pressure.
      5. Know types of air masses and results.
      6. Be able to predict weather.
      7. Know how weather impacts the earth, humans, and other life forms.
    5. Understand the earth relates to the rest of the universe.
      1. Know composition of solar bodies.
      2. Know motions of solar bodies.
      3. Know the value (social and economic) of space exploration.
      4. Know the position of celestial bodies.
    6. Understand the importance of oceans and water to our planet.
      1. Know composition of sweater.
      2. Know economic values of minerals and food gathered from water.
      3. Know movements of currents and their importance.
      4. Know the effects of oceans on weather.
      5. Know how oceans support life.
      6. Know how our water supply is being used and misused.
      
    Reviewed and Approved: May 2015
     
    Music Curriculum
  • Music Curriculum
     
     
     
    Philosophy
    Music and the ability to produce music are precious gifts of our God.  Not only does music exert cultural influence and provide enjoyment and recreation, but above all, it is a wonderful way for us to praise and glorify God.  Music speaks to every person in unique ways:  emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually.  Repeatedly Scripture calls upon us to sing to the Lord:  “Sing to the Lord with thanksgiving; make music to our God on the harp.” (Ps. 147:7)  “Sing to the Lord a new song:  sing unto the Lord, all the earth.” (Ps. 96:1)  St. John's music education provides experiences in singing, listening, reading, playing, moving, and creating music.  Our hope is to integrate music throughout the school day, linking it meaningfully to other subject areas.  Music offers research-proven support to all other subject areas and still maintains its own integrity as a very special gift of God.  It also directs this gift into God-pleasing avenues.  Not only should it be the concern of the Christian teacher to develop an appreciation for the rich heritage of the Lutheran Church (of hymns and chorales), but also to develop an appreciation for other styles of music including sacred and secular, vocal and instrumental, old and new.
     
    We apply this philosophy in our formal music instruction, but also in all musical applications that are offered to our students.  A band program is offered to all students in grades five through eight, and a piano program to all students in grades two through eight.  Students have the opportunity to sing to their Lord as they apply what is learned in their music education during scheduled church service singing.  Handbells is available to students in grades five through eight and piano is offered to students in K-8 to further apply their musical abilities in worship of our God.
     
    Exit Goals for Graduation
    Through Christ-centered music instruction, teachers strive to lead each child to…
    1. Recognize music and the ability to make music as gifts from God.
    2. Use music to God’s glory and in His service.
    3. Understand and use music in worship.
    4. Know and value the heritage of Lutheran church music.
    5. Sing independently and with others, to the best of their abilities.
    6. Read music notation and use music vocabulary.
    7. Listen to music with understanding.
    8. Express musical ideas by playing common classroom instruments, by moving to music, and by creating music.
    9. Understand basic concepts of pitch, rhythm, harmony, form, dynamics, tempo, and timbre.
    10. Become familiar with many types of music.
    11. Develop God-given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music.
    12. Learn to appreciate the beauty of music.
     
    Grade Level Measurable Objectives
     
    Pre-Kindergarten:
    The students will be able to...
    1. summarize and show what worshippers do when they go to church.  [S&MM.L1.U15A]
    2. compile reasons that a church sanctuary is a special place.  [S&MM.L1.U15A]
    3. explain the meaning of the cross as a symbol.  [S&MM.L1.U15A]
    4. identify parts of a worship service that are the same each Sunday and parts of the service that are different.  [S&MM.L1.U15A]
    5. define alleluia and sing liturgical songs that include it.  [S&MM.L1.U15A]
    6. distinguish loud/ soft music intonations.
    7. demonstrate fast/ slow movements in time with music.
    8. identify rhythmic patterns.
    9. identify assorted rhythmic instruments.
    10. demonstrate proper use of rhythm instruments.
    11. distinguish high/low pitches of voice.
    12. exposure to orchestral music/instruments.
    13. learn to use music as a means to praise God.
    14. sing songs with fellow students.
     
     
     
    Kindergarten: 
    The students will...
    1. distinguish various church appointments: altar, pulpit, baptismal font, pews, and organ.  [S&MM.L1.U15B]
    2. summarize seasons of the church year: Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, and Easter.  [S&MM.L1.U15B]
    3. define kyrie and sing liturgical songs that include it (or its meaning).  [S&MM.L1.U15B]
    4. understand and use music in worship.
    5. develop God-given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music.
    6. feel, identify, and express a steady beat through singing and moving.
    7. identify patterns of 2, 3, or 4 in music.
    8. experience rhythm through singing, playing, and moving.
    9. sing independently and with others, to the best of their abilities.
    10. develop students’ ability to use their voices in different ways.
    11. experience the musical concepts of high and low, soft and loud, slow and fast.
    12. identify fast and slow tempos through listening, singing, and moving.
    13. demonstrate how melodies go up and down.
    14. explore long and short sounds.
    15. classify instruments as woodwind, brass, string, or percussion.
    16. Describe different types of classical music.  [Brummitt-Taylor program “Easy” non-Baroque items]
     
    First Grade
    The students will...
    1. identify Biblical examples of music used in worship.  [S&MM.L2.U15A]
    2. order the seasons of the church year: Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, and Ascension.  [S&MM.L2.U15A]
    3. match symbols to appropriate church season.  [S&MM.L2.U15A]
    4. identify appointments of the church sanctuary: lectern, pulpit, communion rail, hymnal, bulletin, banners, etc.  [S&MM.L2.U15A]
    5. feel, identify, and express beat in music through singing and moving.
    6. develop their ability to recognize and feel meters of 2, 3, and 4.
    7. recognize measures in a musical score.
    8. expand their ability to create and perform rhythm patterns.
    9. learn to control their breathing for best singing.
    10. reinforce the relationship of pitches on the staff, and recognize the treble clef.
    11. identify melodic movement--up, down, or staying the same.
    12. experiment with Solfege up to a pentatonic scale (do-re-mi-so-la).
    13. know the difference between notes and rests.
    14. experience tempo in music through singing, playing, and listening.
    15. recognize that music can be loud or soft, and that music can become louder or softer.
    16. recognize the four instrument families of the orchestra, especially the string family.
    17. reinforce the percussion family by playing classroom percussion instruments.
    18. recognize AB and ABA form.
    19. describe different types of classical music.  [Brummitt-Taylor program “Easy”]
     
     
    Second Grade
    The students will...
    1. identify symbols used in church: Pentecost, Trinity, Father, Son, Holy Spirit, Holy Baptism, and Holy Communion.  [S&MM.L2.U15B]
    2. define angus dei and sing liturgical songs that include it (or its meaning).  [S&MM.L2.U15A]
    3. Students will begin learning to use their hymnal, including how to find page numbers, Psalm numbers, and Hymns.
    4. identify music as having groups of 2, 3, or 4 beats.
    5. recognize measures in a musical score.
    6. demonstrate their ability to create and perform rhythmic patterns.
    7. learn to control their breathing for best singing.
    8. reinforce the relationship of pitches on the staff, and recognize the treble clef.
    9. recognize the 5-line staff and some Solfege terms (do-re-mi-so-la).
    10. identify melodic movement--up, down, or staying the same.
    11. define the terms quarter note, half note, quarter rest, and half rest.
    12. experience tempo in music through singing, playing, and listening.
    13. recognize the need for dynamics in music--crescendo and decrescendo.
    14. understand the science of sound production.
    15. recognize the four instrument families of the orchestra, especially the brass family.
    16. recognize and perform AB,  ABA, and ABACA forms.
    17. describe music of the Baroque Period.  [Baroque items from Brummitt-Taylor program & Quaver]
    18. identify composers of the Baroque Period.
     
     
     
    Third Grade
    The students will...
    1. justify the use of music in the worship of God.  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    2. define liturgy, explain its purpose, and identify the basic events: confession of sins, prayer and praise, the Word, and the Sacrament.  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    3. define gloria in excelsis and sing liturgical songs that include it (or its meaning).  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    4. evaluate the text and music of the liturgical song “O Lord, Our Lord.”  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    5. analyze the use of instruments in worship.  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    6. paraphrase and order seasons and festivals of the church year: Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost (all previous are review), and the Transfiguration.  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    7. justify the use of flowers in worship.  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    8. define paraments and connect colors (and their symbolic meaning) with seasons of the church year.  [S&MM.L3.U15A]
    9. develop God-given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music.
    10. create and improvise on various ostinati within a song.
    11. develop elements of singing:  identifying different voices, musical alphabet and rounds and canons.
    12. identify the elements of melody: lines and spaces, melodic movement, and pentatonic scales.
    13. perform and improvise on a pentatonic scale.
    14. explain how a pianoforte works and summarize its importance in the Classical Period.
    15. identify the instruments of a string quartet and summarize its importance in the Classical Period.
    16. identify significant Classical composers and some of their works.  [Quaver & Classical items from Brummitt-Taylor program]
    17. recognize and write notes and rests from audio examples: sixteenth note, whole notes and whole rest, writing notes and rests.
    18. aurally recognize dynamics in music:  mezzo forte, mezzo piano, sforzando, crescendo, and decrescendo review, and identifying dynamics.
    19. explore: the recorder and woodwinds
    20. perform the Blues style on their recorders.
    21. perform with tempo changes.
    22. define chords, harmony, major keys, and minor keys.
    23. perform songs on the recorder using B,A,G, and C.
    24. identify song form and refrain.
    25. explain how form elements combine in a song or piece of music.
     
    Fourth Grade
    The students will:
    1. define sanctus and sing liturgical songs that include it (or its meaning).  [S&MM.L3.U15B]
    2. review the meaning of liturgy and distinguish between ordinary and proper in various liturgies used at St. Paul’s.  [S&MM.L3.U15B]
    3. prioritize the roles of a choir in worship.  [S&MM.L3.U15B]
    4. review seasons and festivals of the church year (Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost) and describe two additional festivals: The Name of Jesus, and Reformation.  [S&MM.L3.U15B]
    5. distinguish nave, chancel, sacristy, and narthex (transepts and balcony).  [S&MM.L3.U15B]
    6. develop God-given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music.
    7. understand elements of rhythm: beat, rhythm, triplets and sixteenth notes.
    8. develop elements of singing: octaves, descants, patriotic music, triads and part singing.
    9. identify elements of melody: ascending and descending scales, major and minor melodies, melodic ostinatos.
    10. practice elements of duration: rhythm instruments, dotted quarter notes and tied notes.
    11. recognize elements of notation: major and minor notation, pitches E and D on the recorder
    12. practice and develop elements of articulation and tempo: articulation terms, tempo review, tempo variations and timbre.
    13. explore and promote and elements of instruments: orchestra and band instruments, guitars and fretted instruments. (invite to listen, study, and play)
    14. explore and understand elements of chords and harmony: major and minor tonalities, chords, harmonies, and playing accompaniments.
    15. introduce elements of the Romantic period: musical style, era, motifs, and musical themes.  [Quaver & Romantic items from Brummitt-Taylor program]
    16. experience elements of a Rap Project: compose, write and perform a simple rap.
    17. provide performance experience of rap project: compose, rehearse and perform.
    18. review, assess and showcase students musical progression.
     
    Fifth Grade
    The students will:
    1. evaluate the role of prayer in worship.  [S&MM.L4.U15B]
    2. summarize the purpose and elements of the Order of Evening Prayer.  [S&MM.L4.U15B]
    3. appreciate the use of instruments in worship throughout history.  [S&MM.L4.U15B]
    4. review seasons of the church year and defend the use of a lectionary in worship.  [S&MM.L4.U15B]
    5. compare the roles of worship helpers: ushers and altar committee.  [S&MM.L4.U15B]
    6. Develop God-given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music.
    7. orient and reinforce concepts of meter by listening, identifying, and performing music in multiple meters.
    8. introduce, explore, and provide syncopation and dotted note rhythms while reviewing rhythm.
    9. develop elements of singing with SATB music and bass clef, descants, and music from other lands.
    10. identify elements of melody such as sharps and flats, major scales and key signatures, and the improvisation of major scales
    11. recognize notation: review notation symbols, use of accidentals, use of dynamics.
    12. practice and develop performance evaluations, rhythm dictation, identifying music styles.
    13. explore and review the symphony orchestra with emphasis on the brass and string section, and how they are used in various musical styles.
    14. introduce the Impressionist Period and familiarize students with techniques, art, and music of the Impressionist composers.  [Quaver & 2oth Century items from Brummitt-Taylor program]
    15. review chords, harmony, major vs. minor chords, and experiencing progressions using the I, IV, V chords using popular music.
    16. create a commercial project using music to enhance the effectiveness of the commercial jingle.
    17. practice and perform their commercial jingle.
    18. review, assess, and showcase students’ musical progression!
     
    Sixth Grade
    The students will …
    1. analyze and classify hymns important to the Lutheran heritage.  {Specific hymns will be listed in a hymnology curriculum.}
    2. analyze liturgies (Common Service & Service of Word and Sacrament) [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    3. identify  and describe major sections of the liturgy: opening, confession of sins, prayer and praise, the word, the sacrament, thanksgiving.  [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    4. explain how the pipe organ became a common instrument for leading worship.  [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    5. describe the basic mechanics of the pipe organ.  [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    6. integrate their God given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music.
    7. perform rhythmic patterns, to the best of their abilities.
    8. design and create musical compositions.
    9. Differentiate musical selections by musical period: Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Impressionistic, or 20th Century.  [Brummitt-Taylor program “Moderate”]
    10. summarize key elements of an opera.
    11. identify African percussion instruments.
    12. compose and perform an original African percussion piece.
    13. define waveforms, frequency, amplitude, and reverberation.
    14. explore properties of sound using instruments.
    15. explore sound manipulation in studios.
    16. explain and employ basic elements of composing.
     
     
    Seventh Grade
    The students will…
    1. analyze and classify hymns and liturgical songs important to the Lutheran heritage
      1. Learn background of hymns/songs and authors
      2. Summarize hymns and write applications for everyday life
    2. summarize and order the seasons of the church year: Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Holy Week, Easter, Pentecost,  and End Time.  [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    3. justify the use of a church year in our worship life.  [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    4. compare and contrast the tabernacle with Solomon’s temple.  [S&MM.L4.U15A]
    5. integrate their God given talents to express thoughts, feelings, and faith through music
    6. explore and perform percussion rhythms
    7. compare and evaluate musical periods and famous composers [Brummitt-Taylor program “Challenging”, and “Easy” through Haydn]
    8. use mobile technology to compose  
    9. create and perform in a jam piece
     
    Eighth Grade:
    The students will. . .
    1. analyze the components and uses of gathering rites included in Christian Worship Supplement.
    2. compare and contrast Divine Service I and Divine Service II.
    3. recommend uses for meditations included in Christian Worship Supplement.
    4. assess some of the supplemental readings included in the lectionaries of Christian Worship Supplement.
    5. study and come to appreciate the hymns and liturgies important to our Lutheran heritage.
    6. express faith in song, preparing and performing songs for church throughout the year.
    7. work together to practice and perform a biennial school musical.
    8. express musical ideas and knowledge of theory by playing classroom instruments such as ukulele, church chimes, and keyboard.
    9. prepare and perform hymns using church chimes biannually for worship services.
    10. prepare and perform Christmas carols using ukuleles for care center residents.
    11. explore a variety of musical styles, such as jazz, rock, and hip-hop.
    12. use knowledge of the basic concepts of theory and understanding of musical styles to compose music individually and in groups.
    13. study the history and instruments involved in Asian music.
    14. create and perform an original drum piece using Asian instruments.
    15. Generalize musical traits of Renaissance music.
    16. Distinguish the musical period of a given composition.  [Brummitt-Taylor program “Moderate” and “Easy” from Holst to Vivaldi]
      
    Assessment of Academic Growth
    Students will be assessed by content quizzes, performance assessments, writing projects, and presentations.
     
     
    Revised and Approved: May 2016
     
    Art Curriculum
  • Art Curriculum
     
     
     
    Introduction and Rationale
     
    The study of the art allows students to recognize the God-given talents and abilities of artists throughout history as well as their own God-given artistic abilities and those of their peers. They learn that art can be used to communicate in a very powerful way Biblical truths, especially God’s plan of salvation.
     
    The study of art is important because it has endured in all cultures throughout the ages as a universal basic language. Art conveys knowledge and meaning not learned through the study of other subjects. Study in and through it employs a form of thinking and a way of knowing based on human judgment, invention, and imagination. An art education offers students the opportunity to envision, set goals, determine a method to reach a goal and try it out, identify alterna­tives, evaluate, revise, solve problems, imag­ine, work collaboratively, and apply self-discipline. As students study and create in the visual arts, they use the potential of the human mind to its full and unique capacity. Therefore, art is a vital part of a well-rounded educational program for all students.
     
    The art standards are written to apply to all students and at each grade level build on the knowledge and skills the student has gained in the earlier grades. When reading the standards at a particular grade level, one must know the standards for all previous grade levels to understand how expectations are based on prior learning. Another important goal of the standards is to help students make connections between concepts in art and across other subject areas. The art standards allow students to experience the arts from the perspectives of American culture and worldwide ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural groups.
     
    Content Standards
    Pre-School
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Discuss visual and tactile perceptions of the natural and human-made world: what is seen and how objects feel.
    2. Identify colors by name.
    3. Name and describe objects by color and relative size.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Create patterns and three-dimensional arrangements (using manipulatives or blocks).
    2. Demonstrate beginning skill in the use of materials (such as pencils, paints, crayons, clay) to create works of art.
    3. Experiment with colors through the use of a variety of drawing materials and paints.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Create a self-portrait.
    2. Create a picture of a person.
    3. Use colors to draw or paint a picture of everyday objects.
    4. Create a three-dimensional form.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Identify art observed in daily life.
    2. Describe pictorial objects that appear in works of art.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Discuss art objects from various places and times.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Discuss what is seen in works of art.
    2. Ask questions about works of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Discuss what they like about their own works of art.
    2. Select works of art by others and tell what they like about them.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Create visual patterns (e.g., line, line, dot; line, line, dot) to match rhythms made by clapping or drumming the beat found in selected poems or songs.
    2. Name colors and draw an object, using the colors (e.g., red balloon, green leaf, brown dog, yellow sun).
    Visual Literacy
    1. Identify images of self, friends, and family (including snapshots and the students’ own works of art).
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Discuss how art is used to illustrate stories.
     
    Kindergarten
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Recognize and describe simple patterns found in the environment and works of art.
    2. Name art materials (e.g., clay, paint, crayons) introduced in lessons.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Identify the elements of art (line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space) in the environment and in works of art, emphasizing line, color, and shape/form.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Use lines, shapes/forms, and colors to make patterns.
    2.  Demonstrate beginning skill in the use of tools and processes, such as the use of scissors, glue, and paper in creating a three-dimensional construction.
    3. Make a collage with cut or torn paper shapes/forms.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Paint pictures expressing ideas about family and neighborhood.
    2. Use lines in drawings and paintings to express feelings.
    3. Use geometric shapes/forms (circle, triangle, square) in a work of art.
    4. Create a three-dimensional form, such as a real or imaginary animal.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Describe functional and nonutilitarian art seen in daily life; that is, works of art that are used versus those that are only viewed.
    2. Identify and describe works of art that show people doing things together.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Look at and discuss works of art from a variety of times and places.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Discuss their own works of art, using appropriate art vocabulary (e.g., color, shape/form, texture).
    2. Describe what is seen (including both literal and expressive content) in selected works of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Discuss how and why they made a specific work of art.
    2. Give reasons why they like a particular work of art they made, using appropriate art vocabulary.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Draw geometric shapes/forms (e.g., circles, squares, triangles) and repeat them in dance/movement sequences.
    2. Look at and draw something used every day (e.g., scissors, toothbrush, fork) and de-scribe how the object is used.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Point out images (e.g., photographs, paintings, murals, ceramics, sculptures) and symbols found at home, in school, and in the community, including national and state symbols and icons.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Discuss the various works of art (e.g., ceramics, paintings, sculpture) that artists create and the type of media used.
    Grade One
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Describe and replicate repeated patterns in nature, in the environment, and in works of art.
    2. Distinguish among various media when looking at works of art (e.g., clay, paints, drawing materials).
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Identify the elements of art in objects in nature, in the environment, and in works of art, emphasizing line, color, shape/form, and texture.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Use texture in two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art.
    2. Mix secondary colors from primary colors and describe the process.
    3. Demonstrate beginning skill in the manipulation and use of sculptural materials (clay, paper, and papier maché) to create form and texture in works of art.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Plan and use variations in line, shape/form, color, and texture to communicate ideas or feelings in works of art.
    2. Create a representational sculpture based on people, animals, or buildings.
    3. Draw or paint a still life, using secondary colors.
    4. Use visual and actual texture in original works of art.
    5. Create artwork based on observations of actual objects and everyday scenes.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Recognize and discuss the design of everyday objects from various time periods and cultures.
    2. Identify and describe various subject matter in art (e.g., landscapes, seascapes, portraits, still life).
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. View and then describe art from various cultures.
    2. Identify art objects from various cultures (e.g., Japanese screen painting, Mexican tin art, African masks) and describe what they have in common and how they differ.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Discuss works of art created in the classroom, focusing on selected elements of art (e.g., shape/form, texture, line, color).
    2. Identify and describe various reasons for making art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Describe how and why they made a selected work of art, focusing on the media and technique.
    2. Select something they like about their work of art and something they would change.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Clap out rhythmic patterns found in the lyrics of music and use symbols to create visual representations of the patterns.
    2. Compare and contrast objects of folk art from various time periods and cultures.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Identify and sort pictures into categories according to the elements of art emphasized in the works (e.g., color, line, shape/form, texture).
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Describe objects designed by artists (e.g., furniture, appliances, cars) that are used at home and at school.
    Grade Two
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Perceive and describe repetition and balance in nature, in the environment, and in works of art.
    2. Perceive and discuss differences in mood created by warm and cool colors.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Identify the elements of art in objects in nature, the environment, and works of art, emphasizing line, color, shape/form, texture, and space.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Demonstrate beginning skill in the use of basic tools and art-making processes, such as printing, crayon rubbings, collage, and stencils.
    2. Demonstrate beginning skill in the use of art media, such as oil pastels, watercolors, and tempera.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Depict the illusion of depth (space) in a work of art, using overlapping shapes, relative size, and placement within the picture.
    2. Create a painting or drawing, using warm or cool colors expressively.
    3. Use bilateral or radial symmetry to create visual balance.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Explain how artists use their work to share experiences or communicate ideas.
    2. Recognize and use the vocabulary of art to describe art objects from various cultures and time periods.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Identify and discuss how art is used in events and celebrations in various cultures, past and present, including the use in their own lives.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Compare ideas expressed through their own works of art with ideas expressed in the work of others.
    2. Compare different responses to the same work of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Use the vocabulary of art to talk about what they wanted to do in their own works of art and how they succeeded.
    2. Use appropriate vocabulary of art to describe the successful use of an element of art in a work of art.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Use placement, overlapping, and size differences to show opposites (e.g., up/down, in/out, over/under, together/apart, fast/slow, stop/go).
    2. Select and use expressive colors to create mood and show personality within a portrait of a hero from long ago or the recent past.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Identify pictures and sort them into categories according to expressive qualities (e.g., theme and mood).
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Discuss artists in the community who create different kinds of art (e.g., prints, ceramics, paintings, sculpture).
    Grade Three
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Perceive and describe rhythm and movement in works of art and in the environment.
    2. Describe how artists use tints and shades in painting.
    3. Identify and describe how foreground, middle ground, and background are used to create the illusion of space.
    4. Compare and contrast two works of art made by the use of different art tools and media (e.g., watercolor, tempera, computer).
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Identify and describe elements of art in works of art, emphasizing line, color, shape/ form, texture, space, and value.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Explore ideas for art in a personal sketchbook.
    2. Mix and apply tempera paints to create tints, shades, and neutral colors.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Paint or draw a landscape, seascape, or cityscape that shows the illusion of space.
    2. Create a work of art based on the observation of objects and scenes in daily life, emphasizing value changes.
    3. Create an imaginative clay sculpture based on an organic form.
    4. Create an original work of art emphasizing rhythm and movement, using a selected printing process.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Compare and describe various works of art that have a similar theme and were created at different time periods.
    2. Identify artists from his or her own community, county, or state and discuss local or regional art traditions.
    3. Distinguish and describe representational, abstract, and nonrepresentational works of art.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Identify and describe objects of art from different parts of the world observed in visits to a museum or gallery (e.g., puppets, masks, containers).
    2. Write about a work of art that reflects a student’s own cultural background.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Compare and contrast selected works of art and describe them, using appropriate vocabulary of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Identify successful and less successful compositional and expressive qualities of their own works of art and describe what might be done to improve them.
    2. Select an artist’s work and, using appropriate vocabulary of art, explain its successful compositional and communicative qualities.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Describe how costumes contribute to the meaning of a dance.
    2. Write a poem or story inspired by their own works of art.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Look at images in figurative works of art and predict what might happen next, telling what clues in the work support their ideas.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Describe how artists (e.g., architects, book illustrators, muralists, industrial designers) have affected people’s lives.
    Grade Four
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Perceive and describe contrast and emphasis in works of art and in the environment.
    2. Describe how negative shapes/forms and positive shapes/forms are used in a chosen work of art.
    3. Identify pairs of complementary colors (e.g., yellow/violet; red/green; orange/blue) and discuss how artists use them to communicate an idea or mood.
    4. Describe the concept of proportion (in face, figure) as used in works of art.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Describe and analyze the elements of art (e.g., color, shape/form, line, texture, space, value), emphasizing form, as they are used in works of art and found in the environment.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Use shading (value) to transform a two-dimensional shape into what appears to be a three-dimensional form (e.g., circle to sphere).
    2. Use the conventions of facial and figure proportions in a figure study.
    3. Use additive and subtractive processes in making simple sculptural forms.
    4. Use fibers or other materials to create a simple weaving.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Use accurate proportions to create an expressive portrait or a figure drawing or painting.
    2. Use the interaction between positive and negative space expressively in a work of art.
    3. Use contrast (light and dark) expressively in an original work of art.
    4. Use complementary colors in an original composition to show contrast and emphasis.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Describe how art plays a role in reflecting life (e.g., in photography, quilts, architecture).
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Identify and discuss the content of works of art in the past and present, focusing on the different cultures that have contributed to Wisconsin’s history and art heritage.
    2. Research and describe the influence of religious groups on art and architecture, focusing primarily on buildings in Wisconsin both past and present.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Describe how using the language of the visual arts helps to clarify personal responses to works of art.
    2. Identify and describe how a person’s own cultural context influences individual responses to works of art.
    3. Discuss how the subject and selection of media relate to the meaning or purpose of a work of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Identify and describe how various cultures define and value art differently.
    2. Describe how the individual experiences of an artist may influence the development of specific works of art.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Select a nonobjective painting, work in small groups to interpret it through dance/movement, and then write a paragraph reporting on the arts experience.
    2. Identify through research twentieth-century artists who have incorporated symmetry as a part of their work and then create a work of art, using bilateral or radial symmetry.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Construct diagrams, maps, graphs, timelines, and illustrations to communicate ideas or tell a story about a historical event.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Read biographies and stories about artists and summarize the readings in short reports, telling how the artists mirrored or affected their time period or culture.
    Grade Five
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Identify and describe the principles of design in visual compositions, emphasizing unity and harmony.
    2. Identify and describe characteristics of representational, abstract, and nonrepresentational works of art.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Use their knowledge of all the elements of art to describe similarities and differences in works of art and in the environment.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Use one-point perspective to create the illusion of space.
    2. Create gesture and contour observational drawings.
    3. Demonstrate beginning skill in the manipulation of digital imagery (e.g., computer-generated art, digital photography, or videography).
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Create an expressive abstract composition based on real objects.
    2. Assemble a found object sculpture (as assemblage) or a mixed media two-dimensional composition that reflects unity and harmony and communicates a theme.
    3. Use perspective in an original work of art to create a real or imaginary scene.
    4. Communicate values, opinions, or personal insights through an original work of art.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Describe how local and national art galleries and museums contribute to the conservation of art.
    2. Identify and describe various fine, traditional, and folk arts from historical periods worldwide.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Identify and compare works of art from various regions of the United States.
    2. View selected works of art from a major culture and observe changes in materials and styles over a period of time.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Identify how selected principles of design are used in a work of art and how they affect personal responses to and evaluation of the work of art.
    2. Compare the different purposes of a specific culture for creating art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Develop and use specific criteria as individuals and in groups to assess works of art.
    2. Assess their own works of art, using specific criteria, and describe what changes they would make for improvement.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Use linear perspective to depict geometric objects in space.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Identify and design icons, logos, and other graphic devices as symbols for ideas and information.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Research and report on what various types of artists (e.g., architects, designers, graphic artists, animators) produce and how their works play a role in our everyday environment.
    Grade Six
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Visual Arts Knowledge and Vocabulary
    1. Identify and describe all the elements of art found in selected works of art (e.g., color, shape/form, line, texture, space, value).
    2. Discuss works of art as to theme, genre, style, idea, and differences in media.
    3. Describe how artists can show the same theme by using different media and styles.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Describe how balance is effectively used in a work of art (e.g., symmetrical, asymmetrical, radial).
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Use various observational drawing skills to depict a variety of subject matter.
    2. Apply the rules of two-point perspective in creating a thematic work of art.
    3. Create a drawing, using varying tints, shades, and intensities.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Create increasingly complex original works of art reflecting personal choices and in-creased technical skill.
    2. Select specific media and processes to express moods, feelings, themes, or ideas.
    3. Use technology to create original works of art.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Research and discuss the role of the visual arts in selected periods of history, using a variety of resources (both print and electronic).
    2. View selected works of art from a culture and describe how they have changed or not changed in theme and content over a period of time.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Compare, in oral or written form, representative images or designs from at least two selected cultures.
     
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Construct and describe plausible interpretations of what they perceive in works of art.
    2. Identify and describe ways in which their culture is being reflected in current works of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Develop specific criteria as individuals or in groups to assess and critique works of art.
    2. Change, edit, or revise their works of art after a critique, articulating reasons for their changes.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Research how art was used in theatrical productions in the past and in the present.
    2. Research how traditional characters (such as the trickster) found in a variety of cultures past and present are represented in illustrations.
    3. Create artwork containing visual metaphors that express the traditions and myths of selected cultures.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Describe tactics employed in advertising to sway the viewer’s thinking and provide examples.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Establish criteria to use in selecting works of art for a specific type of art exhibition.
    Grade Seven
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Describe the environment and selected works of art, using the elements of art and the principles of design.
    2. Identify and describe scale (proportion) as applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Identify and describe the ways in which artists convey the illusion of space (e.g., placement, overlapping, relative size, atmospheric perspective, and linear perspective).
    2. Analyze and describe how the elements of art and the principles of design contribute to the expressive qualities of their own works of art.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Develop increasing skill in the use of at least three different media.
    2. Use different forms of perspective to show the illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface.
    3. Develop skill in using mixed media while guided by a selected principle of design.
    4. Develop skill in mixing paints and showing color relationships.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Interpret reality and fantasy in original two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art.
    2. Create an original work of art, using film, photography, computer graphics, or video.
    3. Create a series of works of art that express a personal statement demonstrating skill in applying the elements of art and the principles of design.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Research and describe how art reflects cultural values in various traditions throughout the world.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Compare and contrast works of art from various periods, styles, and cultures and explain how those works reflect the society in which they were made.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Explain the intent of a personal work of art and draw possible parallels between it and the work of a recognized artist.
    2. Analyze the form (how a work of art looks) and content (what a work of art communicates) of works of art.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Take an active part in a small-group discussion about the artistic value of specific works of art, with a wide range of the viewpoints of peers being considered.
    2. Develop and apply specific and appropriate criteria individually or in groups to assess and critique works of art.
    3. Identify what was done when a personal work of art was reworked and explain how those changes improved the work.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Study the music and art of a selected historical era and create a multimedia presentation that reflects that time and culture.
    2. Use various drawing skills and techniques to depict lifestyles and scenes from selected civilizations.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Examine art, photography, and other two- and three-dimensional images, comparing how different visual representations of the same object lead to different interpretations of its meaning, and describe or illustrate the results.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Identify professions in or related to the visual arts and some of the specific skills needed for those professions.
    Grade Eight
     
    1. ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
    Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to the Visual Arts
    Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in nature, events, and the environment. They also use the vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
    Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts Vocabulary
    1. Use artistic terms when describing the intent and content of works of art.
    Analyze Art Elements and Principles of Design
    1. Analyze and justify how their artistic choices contribute to the expressive quality of their own works of art.
    2. Analyze the use of the elements of art and the principles of design as they relate to meaning in video, film, or electronic media.
     
    1. CREATIVE EXPRESSION
    Creating, Performing, and Participating in the Visual Arts
    Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.
    Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
    1. Demonstrate an increased knowledge of technical skills in using more complex two-dimensional art media and processes (e.g., printing press, silk screening, computer graphics software).
    2. Design and create maquettes for three-dimensional sculptures.
    Communication and Expression Through Original Works of Art
    1. Create an original work of art, using film, photography, computer graphics, or video.
    2. Design and create an expressive figurative sculpture.
    3. Select a medium to use to communicate a theme in a series of works of art.
    4. Design and create both additive and subtractive sculptures.
    5. Design a work of public art appropriate to and reflecting a location.
     
    1. HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT
    Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of the Visual Arts
    Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
    Role and Development of the Visual Arts
    1. Examine and describe or report on the role of a work of art created to make a social comment or protest social conditions.
    2. Compare, contrast, and analyze styles of art from a variety of times and places in Western and non-Western cultures.
    Diversity of the Visual Arts
    1. Identify major works of art created by women and describe the impact of those works on society at that time.
    2. Discuss the contributions of various immigrant cultures to the art of a particular society.
     
    1. AESTHETIC VALUING
    Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works in the Visual Arts
    Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works of art, including their own, according to the elements of art, the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
    Derive Meaning
    1. Define their own points of view and investigate the effects of their interpretation of art from cultures other than their own.
    2. Develop a theory about the artist’s intent in a series of works of art, using reasoned statements to support personal opinions.
    3. Construct an interpretation of a work of art based on the form and content of the work.
    Make Informed Judgments
    1. Develop and apply a set of criteria as individuals or in groups to assess and critique works of art.
    2. Present a reasoned argument about the artistic value of a work of art and respond to the arguments put forward by others within a classroom setting.
    3. Select a grouping of their own works of art that reflects growth over time and describe the progression.
     
    1. CONNECTIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, APPLICATIONS
    Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in the Visual Arts to Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
    Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
    Connections and Applications
    1. Select a favorite artist and some of his or her works of art and create a music video that expresses personal ideas and views about the artist.
    2. Create a painting, satirical drawing, or editorial cartoon that expresses personal opinions about current social or political issues.
    Visual Literacy
    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the effects of visual communication media (e.g., television, music videos, film, Internet) on all aspects of society.
    Careers and Career-Related Skills
    1. Work collaboratively with a community artist to create a work of art, such as a mural, and write a report about the skills needed to become a professional artist.
     
    Reviewed and Approved: May 2015

    Glossary of Terms Used in the Art Content Standards
    abstract Artwork in which the subject matter is stated in a brief, simplified manner. Little or no attempt is made to represent images realistically, and objects are often simplified or distorted.
    additive Refers to the process of joining a series of parts together to create a sculpture.
    aerial perspective Aerial or atmospheric perspective achieved by using bluer, lighter, and duller hues for distant objects in a two-dimensional work of art.
    aesthetics A branch of philosophy; the study of art and theories about the nature and components of aesthetic experience.
    analogous Refers to closely related colors; a color scheme that combines several hues next to each other on the color wheel.
    arbitrary colors Colors selected and used without reference to those found in reality.
    art criticism An organized system for looking at the visual arts; a process of appraising what students should know and be able to do.
    art elements See elements of art.
    assemblage A three-dimensional composition in which a collection of objects is unified in a sculptural work.
    asymmetry A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived midline, giving the appearance of equal visual weight.
    atmospheric perspective See aerial perspective.
    background The part of the picture plane that seems to be farthest from the viewer.
    balance The way in which the elements in visual arts are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium in a work of art. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.
    collage An artistic composition made of various materials (e.g., paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface.
    color The visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. The three characteristics of color are hue, value, and intensity.
    color relationships Also called color schemes or harmonies. They refer to the relationships of colors on the color wheel. Basic color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, and complementary.
    color theory An element of art. Color has three properties: hue, value, and intensity.
    complementary colors Colors opposite one another on the color wheel. Red/green, blue/orange, and yellow/violet are examples of complementary colors.
    composition The organization of elements in a work of art.
    content Message, idea, or feelings expressed in a work of art.
    contour drawings The drawing of an object as though the drawing tool is moving along all the edges and ridges of the form.
    contrast Difference between two or more elements (e.g., value, color, texture) in a composition; juxtaposition of dissimilar elements in a work of art; also, the degree of difference between the lightest and darkest parts of a picture.
    cool colors Colors suggesting coolness: blue, green, and violet.
    curvature The act of curving or bending. One of the characteristics of line.
    curvilinear Formed or enclosed by curved lines.
    design The plan, conception, or organization of a work of art; the arrangement of independent parts (the elements of art) to form a coordinated whole.
    distortion Condition of being twisted or bent out of shape. In art, distortion is often used as an expressive technique.
    dominance The importance of the emphasis of one aspect in relation to all other aspects of a design.
    elements of art Sensory components used to create works of art: line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space.
    emphasis Special stress given to an element to make it stand out.
    expressive content Ideas that express ideas and moods.
    figurative Pertaining to representation of form or figure in art.
    foreground Part of a two-dimensional artwork that appears to be nearer the viewer or in the front. Middle ground and background are the parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.
    focal point The place in a work of art on which attention becomes centered because of an element emphasized in some way.
    form A three-dimensional volume or the illusion of three dimensions (related to shape, which is two-dimensional); the particular characteristics of the visual elements of a work of art (as distinguished from its subject matter or content).
    function The purpose and use of a work of art.
    genre The representation of people, subjects, and scenes from everyday life.
    gesture drawing The drawing of lines quickly and loosely to show movement in a subject.
    harmony The principle of design that combines elements in a work of art to emphasize the similarities of separate but related parts.
    hue Refers to the name of a color (e.g., red, blue, yellow, orange).
    installation art The hanging of ordinary objects on museum walls or the combining of found objects to create something completely new. Later, installation art was ex-tended to include art as a concept.
    intensity Also called chroma or saturation. It refers to the brightness of a color (a color is full in intensity only when pure and unmixed). Color intensity can be changed by adding black, white, gray, or an opposite color on the color wheel.
    line A point moving in space. Line can vary in width, length, curvature, color, or direction.
    linear perspective A graphic system used by artists to create the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface. The lines of buildings and other objects in a picture are slanted, making them appear to extend back into space.
    line direction Line direction may be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.
    line quality The unique character of a drawn line as it changes lightness/darkness, direction, curvature, or width.
    maquette A small preliminary model (as of a sculpture or a building).
    mass The outside size and bulk of a form, such as a building or a sculpture; the visual weight of an object.
    media Plural of medium, referring to materials used to make art; categories of art (e.g., painting, sculpture, film).
    middle ground Area of a two-dimensional work of art between foreground and background.
    mixed media A work of art for which more than one type of art material is used to create the finished piece.
    monochromatic A color scheme involving the use of only one hue that can vary in value or intensity.
    mood The state of mind or feeling communicated in a work of art, frequently through color.
    motif A unit repeated over and over in a pattern. The repeated motif often creates a sense of rhythm.
    movement The principle of design dealing with the creation of action.
    multimedia Computer programs that involve users in the design and organization of text, graphics, video, and sound in one presentation.
    negative Refers to shapes or spaces that are or represent areas unoccupied by objects.
    neutral colors The colors black, white, gray, and variations of brown. They are included in the color family called earth colors.
    nonobjective Having no recognizable object as an image. Also called nonrepresentational.
    observational drawing skills Skills learned while observing firsthand the object, figure, or place.
    one-point perspective A way to show three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface. Lines appear to go away from the viewer and meet at a single point on the horizon known as the vanishing point.
    organic Refers to shapes or forms having irregular edges or to surfaces or objects resembling things existing in nature.
    pattern Anything repeated in a predictable combination.
    performance art A type of art in which events are planned and enacted before an audience for aesthetic reasons.
    perspective A system for representing three-dimensional objects viewed in spatial recession on a two-dimensional surface.
    point of view The angle from which the viewer sees the objects or scene.
    portfolio A systematic, organized collection of student work.
    positive Shapes or spaces that are or represent solid objects.
    primary colors Refers to the colors red, yellow, and blue. From these all other colors are created.
    printmaking The transferring of an inked image from one surface (from the plate or block) to another (usually paper).
    principles of design The organization of works of art. They involve the ways in which the elements of art are arranged (balance, contrast, dominance, emphasis, movement, repetition, rhythm, subordination, variation, unity).
    properties of color Characteristics of colors: hue, value, intensity.
    proportion The size relationships of one part to the whole and of one part to another.
    rectilinear Formed or enclosed by straight lines to create a rectangle.
    reflection Personal and thoughtful consideration of an artwork, an aesthetic experience, or the creative process.
    rhythm Intentional, regular repetition of lines of shapes to achieve a specific repetitious effect or pattern.
    rubric A guide for judgment or scoring; a description of expectations.
    scale Relative size, proportion. Used to determine measurements or dimensions within a design or work of art.
    sculpture A three-dimensional work of art either in the round (to be viewed from all sides) or in bas relief (low relief in which figures protrude slightly from the background).
    secondary colors Colors that are mixtures of two primaries. Red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, and blue and red make violet.
    shade Color with black added to it.
    shape A two-dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free-form or geometric. It can be found in nature or is made by humans.
    space The emptiness or area between, around, above, below, or contained within objects. Shapes and forms are defined by the space around and within them, just as spaces are defined by the shapes and forms around and within them.
    still life Arrangement or work of art showing a collection of inanimate objects.
    structure The way in which parts are arranged or put together to form a whole.
    style A set of characteristics of the art of a culture, a period, or school of art. It is the characteristic expression of an individual artist.
    stylized Simplified; exaggerated.
    subordination Making an element appear to hold a secondary or lesser importance within a design or work of art.
    subtractive Refers to sculpting method produced by removing or taking away from the original material (the opposite of additive).
    texture The surface quality of materials, either actual (tactile) or implied (visual). It is one of the elements of art.
    theme An idea based on a particular subject.
    three-dimensional Having height, width, and depth. Also referred to as 3-D.
    tint Color lightened with white added to it.
    tone Color shaded or darkened with gray (black plus white).
    two-dimensional Having height and width but not depth. Also referred to as 2-D.
    two-point perspective A system to show three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface. The illusion of space and volume utilizes two vanishing points on the horizon line.
    unity Total visual effect in a composition achieved by the careful blending of the elements of art and the principles of design.
    value Lightness or darkness of a hue or neutral color. A value scale shows the range of values from black to white.
    value scale Scale showing the range of values from black to white and light to dark.
    vanishing point In perspective drawing, a point at which receding lines seem to converge.
    variety A principle of art concerned with combining one or more elements of art in different ways to create interest.
    virtual Refers to an image produced by the imagination and not existing in reality.
    visual literacy Includes thinking and communication. Visual thinking is the ability to trans-form thoughts and information into images; visual communication takes place when people are able to construct meaning from the visual image.
    visual metaphor Images in which characteristics of objects are likened to one another and represented as that other. They are closely related to concepts about symbol-ism.
    volume The space within a form (e.g., in architecture, volume refers to the space within a building).
    warm colors Colors suggesting warmth: red, yellow, and orange.
    watercolor Transparent pigment mixed with water. Paintings done with this medium are known as watercolors.
     
     
    Phy Ed Curriculum
  • Physical Education Curriculum
     
     
     
    Introduction and Rationale
     
    God has given each of us our body. Because God is our creator, one way we can honor God with our body is by taking care of it through knowledge of how to live a healthy lifestyle and through physical fitness. The study of physical education allows students to recognize that God has given us our bodies and the ability to move and be active and that it is our responsibility to take care of them, to use them to his glory, and to the benefit of one another.
     
    Physical education significantly contributes to students’ well-being. Physical education instruction contributes to good health, develops fundamental and advanced motor skills, improves students’ self-confidence, and provides opportunities for increased levels of physical fitness that are associated with high academic achievement. Mastering fundamental movement skills at an early age establishes a foundation that facilitates further motor skill acquisition and gives students increased capacity for a lifetime of successful and enjoyable physical activity experiences. Similarly, the patterns of physical activity acquired during childhood and adolescence are likely to be maintained throughout one’s physical, mental, and social benefits.
     
    According to the U.S. Surgeon General, regular physical activity is one of the most important ways to maintain and improve one’s physical health, mental health, and overall well-being. A student who participates in physical education is more likely to become a healthy adult who is motivated to remain healthy and physically active throughout his or her life.
     
    Physical education is an integral part of the education program for all students. It teaches students how their bodies move and how to perform a variety of physical activities. Students learn the health-related benefits of regular physical activity and the skills to adopt a physically active, healthy lifestyle. The discipline also provides learning experiences that meet the developmental needs of students. With high quality physical education instruction, students become confident, independent, self-controlled, and resilient; develop positive social skills; set and strive for personal, achievable goals; learn to assume leadership; cooperate with others; accept responsibility for their own behavior; and, ultimately, improve their academic performance.
     
    The model content standards provide opportunities for teachers to reinforce student learning in all areas of the curriculum. The standards link the content in physical education with content in English–language arts, science, mathematics, and history–social science, thereby establishing and emphasizing the many connections between the subjects.
     
    In elementary school the content standards emphasize the way in which students move through space and time in their environment, the way in which the student and a partner move in space together, the continuity and change in movement, the manipulation of objects in time and through space, and the manipulation of objects with accuracy and speed.
     
    In middle school the content standards emphasize working cooperatively to achieve a common goal, meeting challenges, making decisions, and working as a team to solve problems.
     
     
    Physical Education Content Standards
    Pre-School
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Travel within a large group, without bumping into others or falling, while using locomotor skills.
    2. Travel forward and sideways while changing direction quickly in response to a signal.
    3. Demonstrate contrasts between slow and fast speeds while using locomotor skills.
    4. Create shapes at high, medium, and low levels by using hands, arms, torso, feet, and legs in a variety of combinations.
     
    Body Management
    1.  Create shapes by using nonlocomotor movements.
    2. Balance on one, two, three, four, and five body parts.
    3. Balance while walking forward and sideways on a narrow, elevated surface.
    4. Demonstrate the relationship of under, over, behind, next to, through, right, left, up, down, forward, backward, and in front of by using the body and an object.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Perform a continuous log roll.
    2. Travel in straight, curved, and zigzag pathways.
    3. Jump over a stationary rope several times in succession, using forward-and-back and side-to-side movement patterns.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    • Strike a stationary ball or balloon with the hands, arms, and feet.
    • Toss a ball to oneself, using the underhand throw pattern, and catch it before it bounces twice.
    • Kick a stationary object, using a simple kicking pattern.
    • Bounce a ball continuously, using two hands.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Perform locomotor and nonlocomotor movements to a steady beat.
    2. Clap in time to a simple, rhythmic beat.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Explain the difference between under and over, behind and in front of, next to and through, up and down, forward and backward, and sideways.
    2. Identify and independently use personal space, general space, and boundaries and discuss why they are important.
     
    Body Management
    1. Identify and describe parts of the body: the head, shoulders, neck, back, chest, waist, hips, arms, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, legs, knees, ankles, feet, and toes.
    2. Explain base of support.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Identify the locomotor skills of walk, jog, run, hop, jump, slide, and gallop.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Explain the role of the eyes when striking objects with the hands, arms, and feet.
    2. Identify the point of contact for kicking a ball in a straight line.
    3. Describe the position of the fingers in the follow-through phase of bouncing a ball continuously.
     
    1. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Participate in physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Participate three to four days each week in moderate to vigorous physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Hang from overhead bars for increasing periods of time.
    2. Climb a ladder, jungle gym, or apparatus.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Stretch shoulders, legs, arms, and back without bouncing.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
     
    Assessment
    1. Identify indicators of increased capacity to participate in vigorous physical activity.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Identify physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
    2. Describe the role of water as an essential nutrient for the body.
    3. Explain that nutritious food provides energy for physical activity.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Identify the location of the heart and explain that it is a muscle.
    2. Explain that physical activity increases the heart rate.
    3. Identify the location of the lungs and explain the role of the lungs in the collection of oxygen.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Explain that strong muscles help the body to climb, hang, push, and pull.
    2. Describe the role of muscles in moving the bones.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Identify the body part involved when stretching.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Explain that the body is composed of bones, organs, fat, and other tissues.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Identify the feelings that result from participation in physical activity.
    2. Participate willingly in physical activities.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Demonstrate the characteristics of sharing in a physical activity.
    2. Describe how positive social interaction can make physical activity with others more fun.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Participate as a leader and a follower during physical activities.
     
     
    Kindergarten
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Travel within a large group, without bumping into others or falling, while using locomotor skills.
    2. Travel forward and sideways while changing direction quickly in response to a signal.
    3. Demonstrate contrasts between slow and fast speeds while using locomotor skills.
    4. Create shapes at high, medium, and low levels by using hands, arms, torso, feet, and legs in a variety of combinations.
     
    Body Management
    1.  Create shapes by using nonlocomotor movements.
    2. Balance on one, two, three, four, and five body parts.
    3. Balance while walking forward and sideways on a narrow, elevated surface.
    4. Demonstrate the relationship of under, over, behind, next to, through, right, left, up, down, forward, backward, and in front of by using the body and an object.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Perform a continuous log roll.
    2. Travel in straight, curved, and zigzag pathways.
    3. Jump over a stationary rope several times in succession, using forward-and-back and side-to-side movement patterns.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    • Strike a stationary ball or balloon with the hands, arms, and feet.
    • Toss a ball to oneself, using the underhand throw pattern, and catch it before it bounces twice.
    • Kick a stationary object, using a simple kicking pattern.
    • Bounce a ball continuously, using two hands.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Perform locomotor and nonlocomotor movements to a steady beat.
    2. Clap in time to a simple, rhythmic beat.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Explain the difference between under and over, behind and in front of, next to and through, up and down, forward and backward, and sideways.
    2. Identify and independently use personal space, general space, and boundaries and discuss why they are important.
     
    Body Management
    1. Identify and describe parts of the body: the head, shoulders, neck, back, chest, waist, hips, arms, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, legs, knees, ankles, feet, and toes.
    2. Explain base of support.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Identify the locomotor skills of walk, jog, run, hop, jump, slide, and gallop.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Explain the role of the eyes when striking objects with the hands, arms, and feet.
    2. Identify the point of contact for kicking a ball in a straight line.
    3. Describe the position of the fingers in the follow-through phase of bouncing a ball continuously.
     
    1. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Participate in physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Participate three to four days each week in moderate to vigorous physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Hang from overhead bars for increasing periods of time.
    2. Climb a ladder, jungle gym, or apparatus.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Stretch shoulders, legs, arms, and back without bouncing.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
     
    Assessment
    1. Identify indicators of increased capacity to participate in vigorous physical activity.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Identify physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
    2. Describe the role of water as an essential nutrient for the body.
    3. Explain that nutritious food provides energy for physical activity.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Identify the location of the heart and explain that it is a muscle.
    2. Explain that physical activity increases the heart rate.
    3. Identify the location of the lungs and explain the role of the lungs in the collection of oxygen.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Explain that strong muscles help the body to climb, hang, push, and pull.
    2. Describe the role of muscles in moving the bones.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Identify the body part involved when stretching.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Explain that the body is composed of bones, organs, fat, and other tissues.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Identify the feelings that result from participation in physical activity.
    2. Participate willingly in physical activities.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Demonstrate the characteristics of sharing in a physical activity.
    2. Describe how positive social interaction can make physical activity with others more fun.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Participate as a leader and a follower during physical activities.
     
    Grade One
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Demonstrate an awareness of personal space, general space, and boundaries while moving in  different directions and at high, medium, and low levels in space.
    2. Travel over, under, in front of, behind, and through objects and over, under, in front of, and behind partners, using locomotor skills.
    3. Change speeds in response to tempos, rhythms, and signals while traveling in straight, curved, and zigzag pathways, using the following locomotor movements: walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, galloping, sliding, and skipping.
    4. Change direction from forward and back and right and left in response to tempos, rhythms, and signals while walking, running, hopping, and jumping (i.e., locomotor skills).
    5. Demonstrate the difference between slow and fast, heavy and light, and hard and soft while moving.
     
    Body Management
    1. Balance oneself, demonstrating momentary stillness, in symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes using body parts other than both feet as a base of support.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Roll smoothly in a forward direction, without stopping or hesitating, emphasizing a rounded form.
    2. Land on both feet after taking off on one foot and on both feet.
    3. Jump a swinging rope held by others.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Demonstrate the underhand movement (throw) pattern.
    2. Demonstrate the overhand movement (throw) pattern.
    3. Demonstrate the two-handed overhead (throw) pattern.
    4. Catch, showing proper form, a gently thrown ball.
    5. Catch a self-tossed ball.
    6. Catch a self-bounced ball.
    7. Kick a rolled ball from a stationary position.
    8. Kick a stationary ball, using a smooth, continuous running approach.
    9. Strike a balloon upward continuously, using arms, hands, and feet.
    10. Strike a balloon upward continuously, using a large, short-handled paddle.
    11. Dribble a ball in a forward direction, using the inside of the foot.
    12. Dribble a ball continuously with one hand.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Create or imitate movement in response to rhythms and music.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Identify the right and left sides of the body and movement from right to left and left to right.
    2. Identify people/objects that are within personal space and within boundaries.
     
    Body Management
    1. Identify the base of support of balanced objects.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Distinguish between a jog and a run, a hop and a jump, and a gallop and a slide and explain the key differences and similarities in those movements.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Identify examples of underhand and overhand movement patterns.
    2. Explain that in the underhand throw, the position of the fingers at the moment of release can influence.
    3. Explain that the nonthrowing arm and hand provide balance and can influence the direction a tossed object and a thrown object travel.
    4. Explain that the point of release influences the direction of a tossed object and of a thrown object.
    5. Describe the proper hand and finger position for catching a ball.
    6. Demonstrate and explain how to reduce the impact force while catching an object.
    7. Identify the placement of the nonkicking foot when kicking with a smooth, running approach.
    8. Identify the location of the contact point to strike an object upward.
    9. Determine and analyze how much force is needed to move the ball forward while dribbling with the hand and with the foot.
     
    3. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Participate in physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Participate three to four times each week, for increasing periods of time, in moderate to vigorous  physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Demonstrate, for increasing periods of time, a “v” sit position, a push-up position with arms extended, and a squat position.
    2. Move from a sitting to a standing position and from a lying to a sitting position without using arms to brace oneself while on the floor.
    3. Travel hand-over-hand along a horizontal ladder or hang from an overhead bar.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Stretch arms, shoulders, back, and legs without hyperflexing or hyperextending the joints.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
     
    Assessment
    1. Identify and use two indicators of increased capacity for vigorous physical activity to measure a change in activity levels.
     
    4. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Identify enjoyable and challenging physical activities that one can do for increasing periods of time without stopping.
    2. Explain the importance of drinking water during and after physical activity.
    3. Explain that nutritious food provides energy for alertness and mental concentration.
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Recognize that the heart is the most important muscle in the body and is approximately the size of a fist.
    2. Explain that increasing the heart rate during physical activity strengthens the heart muscle.
    3. Identify physical activities that cause the heart to beat faster.
    4. Describe the role of blood in transporting oxygen from the lungs.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Explain that strengthening muscles will help prevent injury and that strong muscles will produce more force.
    2. Discuss how prolonged physical activity increases endurance, allowing movement to occur for longer periods of time.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Explain that the proper body position while stretching and strengthening will help prevent injury.
    2. Diagram how flexible muscles allow more range of motion in physical activity.
     
    Body Composition
    • Identify the body components (e.g., bones, muscles, organs, fat, and other tissues).
     
    5. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Participate willingly in new physical activities.
    2. Identify and demonstrate acceptable responses to challenges, successes, and failures in physical activity.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Demonstrate the characteristics of sharing and cooperation in physical activity.
    2. Invite others to use equipment or apparatus before repeating a turn.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Identify and demonstrate the attributes of an effective partner in physical activity.
    2. Identify and demonstrate effective practices for working with a group without interfering with others.
     
    Grade Two
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Move to open spaces within boundaries while traveling at increasing rates of speed.
     
    Body Management
    1. Transfer weight from feet to hands and from hands to feet, landing with control.
    2. Demonstrate balance on the ground and on objects, using bases of support other than both feet.
    3. Create a routine that includes two types of body rolls (e.g., log roll, egg roll, shoulder roll, forward  roll)
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Jump for distance, landing on both feet and bending the hips, knees, and ankles to reduce the impact force.
    2. Skip and leap, using proper form.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Roll a ball for distance, using proper form.
    2. Throw a ball for distance, using proper form.
    3. Catch a gently thrown ball above the waist, reducing the impact force.
    4. Catch a gently thrown ball below the waist, reducing the impact force.
    5. Kick a slowly rolling ball.
    6. Strike a balloon consistently in an upward or forward motion, using a short-handled paddle.
    7. Strike a ball with a bat from a tee or cone, using correct grip and side orientation.
    8. Hand-dribble, with control, a ball for a sustained period.
    9. Foot-dribble, with control, a ball along the ground.
    10. Jump a rope turned repeatedly.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Demonstrate a smooth transition between even-beat locomotor skills and uneven-beat locomotor skills in response to music or an external beat.
    2. Perform rhythmic sequences related to simple folk dance or ribbon routines.
    3. Perform with a partner rhythmic sequences related to simple folk dance or ribbon routines.
     
    2. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Define open space.
    2. Explain how to reduce the impact force of an oncoming object.
    Body Management
    1. Explain the importance of a wide rather than a narrow base of support in balance activities.
    2. Explain why one hand or foot is often preferred when practicing movement skills.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Compare and contrast locomotor movements conducted to even and uneven beats.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Identify opportunities to use underhand and overhand movement (throw) patterns.
    2. Identify different opportunities to use striking skills.
    3. Compare the changes in force applied to a ball and the ball speed when rolling a ball for various distances.
    4. Explain key elements of throwing for distance.
    5. Identify the roles of body parts not directly involved in catching objects.
    6. Identify when to begin the kicking motion when kicking a slowly rolling ball.
    7. Identify the different points of contact when striking a balloon upward and striking a balloon forward.
    8. Explain the purpose of using a side orientation when striking a ball from a batting tee.
    9. Differentiate the effects of varying arm and hand speeds when hand-dribbling a ball.
     
    3. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
     Fitness Concepts
    1. Participate in enjoyable and challenging physical activities for increasing periods of time.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Participate three to four times each week, for increasing periods of time, in moderate to vigorous physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Perform abdominal curl-ups, modified push-ups, oblique curl-ups, forward and side lunges, squats, and triceps push-ups from a chair or bench to enhance endurance and increase muscle efficiency.
    2. Traverse the overhead ladder one bar at a time.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Demonstrate the proper form for stretching the hamstrings, quadriceps, shoulders, biceps, and triceps.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for increasing periods of time.
     
    Assessment
    1. Measure improvements in individual fitness levels.
     
    4. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
     Fitness Concepts
    1. Explain the fuel requirements of the body during physical activity and inactivity.
    2. Describe the role of moderate to vigorous physical activity in achieving or maintaining good health.
    3. Identify ways to increase time for physical activity outside of school.
    4. Discuss how body temperature and blood volume are maintained during physical activity when an adequate amount of water is consumed.
    5. Explain how the intensity and duration of exercise, as well as nutritional choices, affect fuel use during physical activity.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Compare and contrast the function of the heart during rest and during physical activity.
    2. Describe the relationship between the heart and lungs during physical activity.
    3. Compare and contrast changes in heart rate before, during, and after physical activity.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Describe how muscle strength and muscle endurance enhance motor skill performance.
    2. Identify muscles being strengthened during the performance of particular physical activities.
    3. Identify which activities or skills would be accomplished more efficiently with stronger muscles.
    4. Explain the role that weight-bearing activities play in bone strength.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Identify the muscles being stretched during the performance of particular physical activities.
    2. Explain why it is safer to stretch a warm muscle rather than a cold muscle.
     
    Body Composition
    • Describe the differences in density and weight between bones, muscles, organs, and fat.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Participate in a variety of group settings (e.g., partners, small groups, large groups) without interfering with others.
    2. Accept responsibility for one’s own behavior in a group activity.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Acknowledge one’s opponent or partner before, during, and after an activity or game and give  positive feedback on the opponent’s or partner’s performance.
    2. Encourage others by using verbal and nonverbal communication.
    3. Demonstrate respect for self, others, and equipment during physical activities.
    4. Demonstrate how to solve a problem with another person during physical activity.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Participate positively in physical activities that rely on cooperation.
     
    Grade Three
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Chase, flee, and move away from others in a constantly changing environment.
     
    Body Management
    1. Perform an inverted balance (tripod) by evenly distributing weight on body parts.
    2. Perform a forward roll.
    3. Perform a straddle roll.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Jump continuously a forward-turning rope and a backward-turning rope.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Balance while traveling and manipulating an object on a ground-level balance beam.
    2. Catch, while traveling, an object thrown by a stationary partner.
    3. Roll a ball for accuracy toward a target.
    4. Throw a ball, using the overhand movement pattern with increasing accuracy.
    5. Throw and catch an object with a partner, increasing the distance from the partner and maintaining an accurate throw that can be easily caught.
    6. Kick a ball to a stationary partner, using the inside of the foot.
    7. Strike a ball continuously upward, using a paddle or racket.
    8. Hand-dribble a ball continuously while moving around obstacles.
    9. Foot-dribble a ball continuously while traveling and changing direction.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    • Perform a line dance, a circle dance, and a folk dance with a partner.
     
    2. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Describe how changing speed and changing direction can allow one person to move away from another.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    b.   Explain and demonstrate the correct hand position when catching a ball above the head, below the
            waist, near the middle of the body, and away from the body.
    c.   Explain the difference between throwing to a stationary partner and throwing to a moving partner.
    d.   Identify the key elements for increasing accuracy in rolling a ball and throwing a ball.
    e.   Identify the differences between dribbling a ball (with the hand and the foot, separately) while moving Forward and when changing direction.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    f.    Define the terms folk dance, line dance, and circle dance.
    g.   Compare and contrast folk dances, line dances, and circle dances.
     
    3. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    a.   Demonstrate warm-up and cool-down exercises.
    b.   Demonstrate how to lift and carry objects correctly.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Participate three to four days each week, for increasing periods of time, in continuous moderate to vigorous physical activities that require sustained movement of the large muscle groups to increase breathing and heart rate.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    d.   Perform increasing numbers of each: abdominal curl-ups, oblique curl-ups on each side, modified push-ups or traditional push-ups with hands on a bench, forward lunges, side lunges, and triceps push-ups from a chair.
    e.   Climb a vertical pole or rope.
     
    Flexibility
    f.   Hold for an increasing period of time basic stretches for hips, shoulders, hamstrings, quadriceps, triceps, biceps, back, and neck.
     
    Body Composition
    g.  Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
     
    Assessment
    h.  Measure and record improvement in individual fitness activities.
     
    4. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    a.   Identify the body’s normal reactions to moderate to vigorous physical activity.
    b.   List and define the components of physical fitness.
    c.   Explain the purpose of warming up before physical activity and cooling down after physical activity.
    d.   Recognize that the body will adapt to increased workloads.
    e.   Explain that fluid needs are linked to energy expenditure.
    f.    Discuss the need for oxygen and fuel to be available during ongoing muscle contraction so that heat and waste products are removed.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    g.   Describe the relationship between the heart, lungs, muscles, blood, and oxygen during physical activity.
    h.   Describe and record the changes in heart rate before, during, and after physical activity.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    i.    Explain that a stronger heart muscle can pump more blood with each beat.
    j.    Identify which muscles are used in performing muscular endurance activities.
    k.   Name and locate the major muscles of the body.
    l.    Describe and demonstrate how to relieve a muscle cramp.
    m.  Describe the role of muscle strength and proper lifting in the prevention of back injuries.
     
    Flexibility
    n.   Identify flexibility exercises that are not safe for the joints and should be avoided.
    o.   Explain why a particular stretch is appropriate preparation for a particular physical activity.
     
    Body Composition
    p.   Differentiate the body’s ability to consume calories and burn fat during periods of inactivity and during long periods of moderate physical activity.
     
    5. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    a.   Set a personal goal to improve a motor skill and work toward that goal in nonschool time.
    b.   Collect data and record progress toward mastery of a motor skill.
    c.   List the benefits of following and the risks of not following safety procedures and rules associated with physical activity.
     
    Social Interaction
    d.  Use appropriate cues for movement and positive words of encouragement while coaching others in physical activities.
    e.  Demonstrate respect for individual differences in physical abilities.
     
    Group Dynamics
    f.   Work in pairs or small groups to achieve an agreed-upon goal.
     
    Grade Four
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Body Management
    a.   Perform simple balance stunts with a partner while sharing a common base of support.
    b.   Change direction quickly to maintain the spacing between two players.
    c.   Change direction quickly to increase the spacing between two players.
    d.   Determine the spacing between offensive and defensive players based on the speed of the players.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Jump a self-turned rope.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    f.   Throw and catch an object with a partner while both partners are moving.
    g.  Throw overhand at increasingly smaller targets, using proper follow-through.
    h.  Throw a flying disc for distance, using the backhand movement pattern.
    i.   Catch a fly ball above the head, below the waist, and away from the body.
    j.   Kick a ball to a moving partner, using the inside of the foot.
    k.  Kick a stationary ball from the ground into the air.
    l.   Punt a ball dropped from the hands.
    m. Strike, with a paddle or racket, a lightweight object that has been tossed by a partner.
    n.  Serve a lightweight ball to a partner, using the underhand movement pattern.
    o.  Strike a gently tossed ball with a bat, using a side orientation.
    p.  Keep a foot-dribbled ball away from a defensive partner.
    q.  Keep a hand-dribbled ball away from a defensive partner.
    r.   Manipulate an object by using a long-handled implement.
    s.   Stop a kicked ball by trapping it with the foot while standing still.
    t.    Volley a tossed lightweight ball, using the forearm pass.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    u.   Perform a series of basic square-dance steps.
    v.   Perform a routine to music that includes even and uneven locomotor patterns.
     
    2. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    a.   Explain the difference between offense and defense.
    b.   Describe ways to create more space between an offensive player and a defensive player.
     
    Body Management
    c.   Describe the appropriate body orientation to serve a ball, using the underhand movement pattern.
    d.   Describe the appropriate body orientation to strike a ball, using the forehand movement pattern.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    e.   Explain the similar movement elements of the underhand throw and the underhand volleyball serve.
    f.    Distinguish between punting and kicking and describe the similarities and differences.
    g.   Compare and contrast dribbling a ball without a defender and with a defender.
    h.   Explain the differences in manipulating an object when using a long-handled implement and when using a short-handled implement.
    i.    Identify key body positions used for volleying a ball.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    j.   Design a routine to music that includes even and uneven locomotor patterns.
     
    3. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    a.   Participate in appropriate warm-up and cool-down exercises for particular physical activities.
    b.   Demonstrate the correct body position for pushing and pulling large objects.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    c.   Participate three to four days each week, for increasing periods of time, in continuous moderate to vigorous physical activities at the appropriate intensity to increase aerobic capacity.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    d.   Perform increasing numbers of each: abdominal curl-ups, oblique curl-ups on each side, modified push-ups or traditional push-ups, and triceps push-ups.
    e.   Hang by the hands from an overhead bar with the hips and knees each at a 90-degree angle.
     
    Flexibility
    f.   Demonstrate basic stretches using proper alignment for hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors, triceps, back, shoulders, hip abductors, and calves.
     
    Body Composition
    g.  Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
     
    Assessment
    1. Measure and record changes in aerobic capacity and muscular strength, using scientifically based health-related physical fitness assessments.
    2. Meet minimum requirements for health-related physical fitness, using scientifically based health related physical fitness assessments.
     
    4. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    a.   Identify the correct body alignment for performing lower-body stretches.
    b.   Explain the principles of physical fitness: frequency, intensity, time, and type.
    c.   Set personal short-term goals for aerobic endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility and monitor progress by measuring and recording personal fitness scores.
    d.   Identify healthful choices for meals and snacks that help improve physical performance.
    e.   Explain why the body needs water before, during, and after physical activity.
    f.    Explain why the body uses a higher percentage of carbohydrates for fuel during high intensity physical activity and a higher percentage of fat for fuel during low-intensity physical activity.
    g.   Explain the purpose of warm-up and cool-down periods.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    h.   Calculate personal heart rate per minute by recording heartbeats for ten-second intervals and 15 second intervals.
    i.    Explain why a strong heart is able to return quickly to its resting rate after exertion.
    j.    Identify two characteristics of physical activity that build aerobic capacity.
    k.   Determine the intensity of personal physical activity by using the concept of perceived exertion.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    l.    Describe the difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance.
    m.  Explain why muscular endurance or muscular strength activities do not increase muscle mass in preadolescent children.
    n.   Recognize how strengthening major muscles can improve performance at work and play.
    o.   Describe the correct form to push and pull heavy objects.
     
    Flexibility
    p.   Explain the value of increased flexibility when participating in physical activity.
     
    Body Composition
    q.   Explain the effect of regular, sustained physical activity on the body’s ability to consume calories and burn fat for energy.
     
    5. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    a.  Set a personal goal to improve an area of health-related physical fitness and work toward that goal in nonschool time.
    b.  Collect data and record progress toward attainment of a personal fitness goal.
    c.  Accept responsibility for one’s own performance without blaming others.
    d.  Respond to winning and losing with dignity and respect.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Include others in physical activities and respect individual differences in skill and motivation.
     
    Group Dynamics
    f.  Accept an opponent’s outstanding skill, use of strategies, or ability to work effectively with teammates as a challenge of physical fitness.
     
    Grade Five
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Body Management
    1. Perform simple small-group balance stunts by distributing weight and base of support.
     
    Locomotor Movement
    1. Jump for height, using proper takeoff and landing form.
    2. Jump for distance, using proper takeoff and landing form.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Enter, jump, and leave a long rope turned by others.
    2. Throw a flying disc accurately at a target and to a partner, using the backhand movement pattern.
    3. Throw and catch an object underhand and overhand while avoiding an opponent.
    4. Field a thrown ground ball.
    5. Punt a ball, dropped from the hands, at a target.
    6. Stop a kicked ball by trapping it with the foot while moving.
    7. Strike a dropped ball, with a racket or paddle, toward a target by using the forehand movement pattern.
    8. Hit a softly tossed ball backhanded with a paddle or racket.
    9. Strike a tossed ball, with different implements, from a side orientation.
    10. Serve a lightweight ball over a low net, using the underhand movement pattern.
    11. Dribble a ball (by hand or foot) while preventing another person from stealing the ball.
    12. Dribble a ball and kick it toward a goal while being guarded.
    13. Pass a ball back and forth with a partner, using a chest pass and bounce pass.
    14. Volley a tossed ball to an intended location.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Design and perform a creative dance, combining locomotor patterns with intentional changes in speed and direction.
    2. Design and perform a routine to music that involves manipulation of an object.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Explain the importance of open space in playing sport-related games.
    2. Explain the differences in applying and receiving force when jumping for height and distance.
     
    Body Management
    1. Explain how to adjust body position to catch a ball thrown off-center.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Identify the following phases for striking a ball: preparation, application of force, follow-through, and recovery.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Design a routine to music, changing speed and direction while manipulating an object.
     
    1. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Demonstrate how to warm up muscles and joints before running, jumping, kicking, throwing, and striking.
    2. Plan a day of healthful balanced meals and snacks designed to enhance the performance of physical activities.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Participate three to four days each week, for increasing periods of time, in continuous moderate to vigorous physical activities at the appropriate intensity for increasing aerobiccapacity.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Perform an increasing number of oblique curl-ups on each side.
    2. Perform increasing numbers of triceps push-ups.
     
    Flexibility
    1. Perform flexibility exercises that will stretch particular muscle areas for given physical activities.
     
    Body Composition
    1. Sustain continuous movement for an increasing period of time while participating in moderate to vigorous physical activities.
     
    Assessment
    1. Assess health-related physical fitness by using a scientifically based health-related fitness assessment.
    2. Meet age- and gender-specific fitness standards for aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition, using a scientifically based health-related fitness assessment.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    Fitness Concepts
    1. Record and analyze food consumption for one day and make a plan to replace foods with healthier choices and adjust quantities to enhance performance in physical activity.
    2. Explain why dehydration impairs temperature regulation and physical and mental performance.
    3. Develop and describe three short-term and three long-term fitness goals.
    4. Examine personal results of a scientifically based health-related physical fitness assessment and identify one or more ways to improve performance in areas that do not meet minimum standards.
    5. Explain the elements of warm-up and cool-down activities.
    6. Record water intake before, during, and after physical activity.
    7. Describe the principles of training and the application to each of the components of health-related physical fitness.
     
    Aerobic Capacity
    1. Identify the heart rate intensity (target heart-rate range) that is necessary to increase aerobic capacity.
    2. Determine the intensity of personal physical activity, using the concept of perceived exertion.
    3. Compare target heart rate and perceived exertion during physical activity.
    4. Measure and record the heart rate before, during, and after vigorous physical activity.
    5. Explain how technology can assist in the pursuit of physical fitness.
     
    Muscular Strength/Endurance
    1. Explain the benefits of having strong arm, chest, and back muscles.
     
    Flexibility
    • Explain the benefits of stretching after warm-up activities.
     
    Body Composition
    • Explain why body weight is maintained when calorie intake is equal to the calories expended.
    • Describe the short- and long-term benefits of maintaining body composition within the healthy fitness zone.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Improve the level of performance on one component of health-related physical fitness and one identified motor skill by participating in fitness and skill development activities outside school.
    2. Work toward a long-term physical activity goal and record data on one’s progress.
    3. Distinguish between acts of physical courage and physically reckless acts and explain the key characteristics of each.
    4. Act in a safe and healthy manner when confronted with negative peer pressure during physical activity.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Contribute ideas and listen to the ideas of others in cooperative problem-solving activities.
    2. Acknowledge orally the contributions and strengths of others.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Accommodate individual differences in others’ physical abilities in small-group activities.
    2. Appreciate physical games and activities reflecting diverse heritages.
     
    Grade Six
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Volley an object repeatedly with a partner, using the forearm pass.
    2. Strike a ball continuously against a wall and with a partner, using a paddle for the forehand stroke and the backhand stroke.
    3. Strike an object consistently, using a body part, so that the object travels in the intended direction at the desired height.
    4. Strike an object consistently, using an implement, so that the object travels in the intended direction at the desired height.
    5. Dribble and pass a ball to a partner while being guarded.
    6. Throw an object accurately and with applied force, using the underhand, overhand, and sidearm movement (throw) patterns.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Perform folk and line dances.
    2. Develop, refine, and demonstrate routines to music.
     
    Combinations of Movement Patterns and Skills
    1. Combine relationships, levels, speed, direction, and pathways in complex individual and group physical activities.
    2. Combine motor skills to play a lead-up or modified game.
    3. Design and perform smooth, flowing sequences of stunts, tumbling, and rhythmic patterns that combine traveling, rolling, balancing, and transferring weight.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Explain how to increase force based on the principles of biomechanics.
    2. Explain how impact force is reduced by increasing the duration of impact.
    3. Analyze and correct errors in movement patterns.
    4. Provide feedback to a partner to assist in developing and improving movement skills.
    5. Identify practices and procedures necessary for safe participation in physical activities.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Explain the role of the legs, shoulders, and forearm in the forearm pass.
    2. Identify the time necessary to prepare for and begin a forehand stroke and a backhand stroke.
    3. Illustrate how the intended direction of an object is affected by the angle of the implement or body part at the time of contact.
    4.  Identify opportunities to pass or dribble while being guarded.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Identify steps and rhythm patterns for folk and line dances.
    2. Explain how movement qualities contribute to the aesthetic dimension of physical activity.
     
    Combination of Movement Patterns and Skills
    • Develop a cooperative movement game that uses locomotor skills, object manipulation, and an offensive strategy and teach the game to another person.
     
    1. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    1. Assess the components of health-related physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, aerobic capacity, and body composition) by using a scientifically based health-related fitness assessment.
    2. Compare individual physical fitness results with research-based standards for good health.
    3. Develop individual goals for each of the components of health-related physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, aerobic capacity, and body composition).
    4. Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity a minimum of four days each week.
    5. Measure and evaluate changes in health-related physical fitness based on physical activity patterns.
    6. Monitor the intensity of one’s heart rate during physical activity.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    1. Distinguish between effective and ineffective warm-up and cool-down techniques.
    2. Develop a one-day personal physical fitness plan specifying the intensity, time, and types of physical activities for each component of health-related physical fitness.
    3. Identify contraindicated exercises and their adverse effects on the body.
    4. Classify physical activities as aerobic or anaerobic.
    5. Explain methods of monitoring heart rate intensity.
    6. List the long-term benefits of participation in regular physical activity.
    7. Compile and analyze a log noting the food intake/calories consumed and energy expended through physical activity.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Participate productively in group physical activities.
    2. Evaluate individual responsibility in group efforts.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Identify and define the role of each participant in a cooperative physical activity.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Identify and agree on a common goal when participating in a cooperative physical activity.
    2. Analyze possible solutions to a movement problem in a cooperative physical activity and come to a consensus on the best solution.
     
    Grade Seven
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Demonstrate mature techniques for the following patterns: overhand, sidearm, and underhand throwing; catching; kicking/punting; striking; trapping; dribbling (hand and foot); and volleying.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Perform multicultural dances.
     
    Combinations of Movement Patterns and Skills
    1. Combine manipulative, locomotor, and nonlocomotor skills into movement patterns.
    2. Demonstrate body management and object-manipulation skills needed for successful participation in individual and dual physical activities.
    3. Demonstrate body management and locomotor skills needed for successful participation in track and field and combative activities.
    4. Demonstrate body management and object-manipulation skills needed for successful participation in introductory adventure/outdoor activities.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Manipulative Skills
    1. Identify and describe key elements in the mature performance of overhand, sidearm, and underhand throwing; catching; kicking/punting; striking; trapping; dribbling (hand and foot); and volleying.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Analyze movement patterns and correct errors.
    2. Use principles of motor learning to establish, monitor, and meet goals for motor skill development.
    3. Explain and demonstrate spin and rebound principles for performing manipulative skills.
    4. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of practicing skills as a whole and practicing skills in smaller parts.
    5. Diagram and demonstrate basic offensive and defensive strategies for individual and dual physical activities.
     
    Combination of Movement Patterns and Skills
    1. Develop an individual or dual game that uses a manipulative skill, two different offensive strategies, and a scoring system and teach it to another person.
     
    1. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    1. Assess one’s own muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body composition by using a scientifically based health-related fitness assessment.
    2. Evaluate individual measures of physical fitness in relationship to patterns of physical activity.
    3. Develop individual goals, from research-based standards, for each of the five components of health-related physical fitness.
    4. Plan a weekly personal physical fitness program in collaboration with the teacher.
    5. Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity a minimum of four days each week.
    6. Assess periodically the attainment of, or progress toward, personal physical fitness goals and make necessary adjustments to a personal physical fitness program.
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    1. Develop a one-week personal physical fitness plan specifying the proper warm-up and cool-down activities.
    2.  Identify physical activities that are effective in improving each of the health-related physical fitness components.
    3. Match personal preferences in physical activities with each of the five components of health-related physical fitness.
    4. Explain the effects of physical activity on heart rate during exercise, during the recovery phase, and while to body is at rest.
    5. Describe the role of physical activity and nutrition in achieving physical fitness.
    6. Identify and apply the principles of overload in safe, age-appropriate activities.
    7. Explain progression, overload, and specificity as principles of exercise.
    8. Discuss the effect of extremity growth rates on physical fitness.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Identify appropriate and inappropriate risks involved in adventure, individual, and dual physical activities.
    2. Accept responsibility for individual improvement.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Demonstrate an acceptance of differences in physical development and personal preferences as they affect participation in physical activity.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Evaluate the effect of expressing encouragement to others while participating in a group physical activity.
    2. Identify the responsibilities of a leader in physical activity.
     
    Grade Eight
     
    1. Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
     
    Rhythmic Skills
    1. Identify and demonstrate square dance steps, positions, and patterns set to music.
    2. Create and perform a square dance.
     
    Combinations of Movement Patterns and Skills
    1. Demonstrate basic offensive and defensive skills and strategies in team physical activities.
    2. Apply locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills to team physical activities.
    3. Demonstrate fundamental gymnastic/tumbling skills.
    4. Create and perform a routine using fundamental gymnastic/tumbling skills, locomotor and nonlocomotor movement patterns, and the elements of speed, direction, and level.
     
    2.   Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
     
    Movement Concepts
    1. Describe and demonstrate how movement skills learned in one physical activity can be transferred and used to help learn another physical activity.
    2. Explain the rotation principles used in performing various manipulative skills.
    3. Explain how growth in height and weight affects performance and influences the selection of developmentally appropriate physical activities.
     
    Combination of Movement Patterns and Skills
    1. Identify the characteristics of a highly skilled performance for the purpose of improving one’s own performance.
    2. Diagram, explain, and justify offensive and defensive strategies in modified and team sports, games, and activities.
    3. Develop and teach a team game that uses elements of spin or rebound, designated offensive and defensive space, a penalty system, and a scoring system.
     
    1. Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
     
    1. Assess the components of health-related physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body composition) by using a scientifically based health-related physical fitness assessment.
    2. Refine individual personal physical fitness goals for each of the five components of health-related physical fitness, using research-based criteria.
    3. Plan and implement a two-week personal physical fitness plan in collaboration with the teacher.
    4. Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity a minimum of four days each week.
    5. Assess periodically the attainment of, or progress toward, personal physical fitness goals and make necessary adjustments to a personal physical fitness program.
    6. Participate safely in moderate to vigorous physical activity when conditions are atypical (weather, travel, injury).
     
    1. Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
     
    1. Develop a two-week personal physical fitness plan specifying the proper warm-up and cool-down activities and the principles of exercise for each of the five components of health-related physical fitness.
    2. Identify appropriate physical activities that can be performed if one’s physical fitness program is disrupted by inclement weather, travel from home or school, or a minor injury.
    3. Identify ways of increasing physical activity in routine daily activities.
    4. Identify and apply basic principles in weight/resistance training and safety practices.
    5. Explain the effects of nutrition and participation in physical activity on weight control, self-concept, and physical performance.
    6. Explain the different types of conditioning for different physical activities.
     
    1. Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
     
    Self-Responsibility
    1. Abide by the decisions of the officials, accept the outcome of the game, and show appreciation toward participants.
    2. Organize and work cooperatively with a group to achieve the goals of the group.
    3. Identify and evaluate three preferences for lifelong physical activity and determine one’s responsibility for developing skills, acquiring knowledge of concepts, and achieving fitness.
     
    Social Interaction
    1. Identify the contributions of members of a group or team and reward members for accomplishing a task or goal.
     
    Group Dynamics
    1. Accept the roles of group members within the structure of a game or activity.
    2. Describe leadership roles and responsibilities in the context of team games and activities.
    3. Model support toward individuals of all ability levels and encourage others to be supportive and inclusive of all individuals.
     
    Reviewed and Approved: May 2017
     
     
    GLOSSARY
     
    adapted physical education. A physical education program designed to meet the unique needs of an individual with a disability who is unable to fully participate in the general physical education program.
     
    adventure/outdoor activities. Physical activities centered in natural settings. Examples include orienteering, backpacking, hiking, rope activities, canoeing, cycling, skating, and rock climbing.
     
    aerobic activity. Exercise that can be performed for a long duration because the energy required can be provided by the burning of fuel, which normally occurs in muscle cells in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic activity may help control body weight, reduce the percentage of body fat, improve the circulatory function and respiratory functions, and reduce blood pressure. Examples include aerobic dance, cycling, jogging, power walking, in-line skating, step aerobics, kickboxing, and super circuit.
     
    anaerobic activity. Exercise of short duration that is performed at a more strenuous level, so increased respiration and heart rate cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the muscle cells. Anaerobic activity is used
    to build muscle mass and to improve one’s ability to move quickly and to deliver force. Examples of anaerobic activity include sprinting, weight training, curl-ups, gymnastics, and some team activities, such
    as softball and football.
     
    base of support. The area of the base or foundation that supports the body. The base of support may include one or more body parts and the distance between them. The ability to stabilize the body is directly
    proportional to the area of the base of support.
    For example, if the two feet are close together, the base of support is narrow and stability is limited. If the two feet are separated by some distance, the base of support is increased and provides more stability.
     
    basic resistance principles. Resistance is the weight or force that is used to oppose a motion. Resistance training increases muscle strength by pitting the muscles against a weight, such as a dumbbell or barbell. The type of lift; intensity, volume, and variety of training; progressive overload; rest; and recovery constitute the basic principles of resistance training.
     
    biomechanics. The study of human movement and how such movement is influenced by gravity, friction, and the laws of motion. It involves the analysis of force, including muscle force that produces movements
    and impact force that may cause injuries. It explains why motor skills are performed in explicit ways in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness.
     
    body composition. The proportion of fat-free mass (e.g., muscle, bone, vital organs, and tissues) to fat mass in the body.
     
    body management. Basic skills focusing on the ability to control the body and body parts in actions such as those involving traveling, balancing, rolling, and supporting body weight
     
    combative activities. A group of physical activities that utilize basic combatives––pulling, pushing, defiances, stands, and guards. Some examples include wrestling, fencing, boxing, kickboxing, martial arts, and self-defense.
     
    components of health-related physical fitness. Muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body composition.
     
    cool-down exercises. Five to ten minutes of light to moderate physical activity. Cool down exercises help the body recover from exercise. This process maintains blood pressure, helps enhance venous return, and prevents blood from pooling in the muscles.
     
    core muscles. The abdominal, back, hip, and pelvic floor muscles.
     
    dehydration. The loss of water and important blood salts, such as potassium and sodium, that are essential for vital organ functions.
     
    dual activities. Physical activities that require two participants. Examples include tennis, racquetball, and badminton.
     
    ergogenic aids. Substances, devices, or practices that enhance an individual’s energy use, production, or recovery.
     
    even-beat locomotor skills. Examples include walking, running, hopping, and jumping.
     
    flexibility. The ability to move joints of the body through a normal range of motion.
     
    F.I.T.T. principles/concepts. The frequency, intensity, time, and type of physical activities are interdependent principles for gaining and maintaining physical fitness.
     
    folk dance. A dance that has been developed through the traditions of culture and has been passed down from generation to generation.
     
    frequency. A principle of training that establishes how often to exercise.
     
    fundamental movement skills. An organized series of basic movements that involve the combination of movement patterns of two or more body segments. They may be categorized as stability, locomotor, or manipulative movements.
     
    group dynamics. The interactions and interrelationships of people in a group.
     
    health. Optimal well-being that contributes to the quality of life. It is more than freedom from disease and illness. Optimal health includes high-level mental, social, emotional, spiritual, and physical wellness
    within the limits of one’s heredity and personal abilities.
     
    health-related physical fitness. Consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship to good health: body composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, muscle endurance, and muscle strength.
     
    hyperextension. Greater-than-normal stretching or straightening of an extended limb.
     
    hyperflexion. Bending a joint beyond its normal range of motion.
     
    indicators of increased capacity. Responses of the body due to changes in the intensity of, duration of, frequency of, or time spent participating in physical activity. Indicators may consist of changes in muscle fatigue, breathing, and heart rate.
     
    individual activity. Physical activities that require only one participant. Examples include weight training, yoga, archery, and jogging.
     
    individuality. A principle of training that takes into account the particular needs and abilities of the individual for whom it is designed.
     
    intensity. A principle of training that establishes how hard to exercise.
     
    large-muscle groups. Muscles that work together and have a large mass relative to other muscle groups in the body. Examples of large-muscle groups are the muscles in the arms, back, and legs.
    line dance. A dance in which individuals line up without partners and follow a choreographed pattern of steps, usually to country music.
     
    locomotor movements. The basic patterns used to travel (walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, galloping, sliding, and skipping).
     
    long-handled implement. A piece of equipment used in performing motor skills. The long handle positions the hand some distance away from the surface of the implement that comes in contact with the ball. Some examples include a hockey stick, bat, tennis racquet, and lacrosse stick.
     
    manipulative movements. Movements in which skills are developed while using an implement. Examples include throwing, catching, punching, kicking, trapping, rolling, dribbling, striking, and volleying.
     
    moderate physical activity. Moderate-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend while, for example, walking
    briskly, dancing, swimming, or bicycling on level terrain. A person should feel some exertion but should be able to carry on a conversation comfortably during the activity.
     
    modified/lead-up game. Active games that involve the use of two or more of the sport skills, rules, or procedures used in playing the official sport.
     
    movement concepts. The ideas used to modify or enrich the range and effectiveness of the skills employed. They involve learning how, where, and with what the body moves.
     
    movement patterns. An organized series of related movements.
     
    muscle endurance. The ability to contract the muscles many times without tiring or the ability to hold one contraction for an extended period.
     
    muscle strength. The ability of a muscle to exert force. Strength is measured as the amount of force a muscle can produce.
     
    nonlocomotor movements. Movement that is organized around the axis of the body, including bending and stretching, pushing and pulling, raising and lowering, twisting and turning, shaking, bouncing, circling,
    and swinging.
     
    overload. A principle of training that establishes a minimum threshold and requires one to exceed that threshold to benefit from the chosen physical activity.
     
    perceived exertion index. A way of rating how hard one feels the body is working during physical activity; it is based on physical sensations experienced, including increased heart rate, increased respiration or breathing rate, increased sweating, and muscle fatigue.
     
    physical activity. Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure, including exercise, sport, dance, and other movement forms.
     
    physical fitness. A positive state of wellbeing with a low risk of premature health problems and with the energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. It is influenced by regular, vigorous physical
    activity, genetic makeup, and nutritional adequacy.
     
    plyometric exercise. A muscular activity that involves an eccentric contraction (i.e., muscle is lengthened) of a muscle, followed immediately by a concentric contraction (muscle is shortened) of the same muscle. Plyometric exercises are often used to increase power.
     
    principle of overload. The principle of exercise that states that placing a greater-than normal physical demand on the body will require the body to adapt to the greater load by increasing the body’s efficiency and strength.
     
    principles of training/principles of exercise.
    Principles to follow in planning an exercise program to effect physiological changes in the human body related to health and performance: frequency, individuality, intensity, mode/type, overload, progression,
    regularity, specificity, and time.
     
    progression. A principle of training that establishes increases in the amount and intensity of physical activity needed to provide improvements over periods of time.
     
    proprioception. The ability to sense the position, location, and orientation of the body.
     
    rebound principles. Newton’s Third Law: An object, when struck, will rebound in the opposite direction with the same amount of force with which it was hit.
     
    recovery rate. The time necessary for an exercise-induced elevated heart rate to return to a normal resting heart rate.
     
    regularity. A principle of training that establishes exercise on a regular schedule. A pattern of physical activity is regular if activities are performed most days of the week, preferably daily; if moderate intensity
    activities are performed five or more days of the week; or if vigorous intensity activities are performed three or more days of the week.
     
    resistance principle. The principle that the use of an implement, a device, or the body weight as a resistance can enhance some physical characteristic, such as strength or muscular endurance.
     
    rhythmic skills. Skills that develop an understanding of and a feeling for the elements
    of rhythm. Examples of physical activities that allow students to express themselves rhythmically include creative movement, folk dance, square dance, and interpretive dance.
     
    short-handled implement. A piece of equipment used in performing motor skills. The short handle positions the hand close to the surface of the implement that comes in contact with the ball. Some examples include a racquetball racket, a paddle used in paddle games, and a modified lacrosse
    stick.
     
    specificity. A principle of training that establishes a particular kind of activity for each component of physical fitness.
     
    stability movements. Stability reflects balance and equilibrium, which are important components in performing many motor skills. Stability movements include those that are vital for the body to maintain balance while moving. Examples include moving the arms while walking or running and lowering one’s center of gravity when stopping quickly.
     
    strategies. Decisions made by individuals or a team about the overall play of the game.
     
    striking pattern. A fundamental motor skill in which an object is hit, with or without an implement.
     
    tactics. Individual movement of players or teams to accomplish an immediate goal or accommodate a situation. Tactics take place within the game as an ongoing part of game play and include decisions an
    individual makes about when, why, and how to respond to a particular situation.
     
    target heart-rate zone. A safe range of activity intensity that can be used to enhance the level of aerobic capacity.
     
    time. A principle of training that establishes the amount of time for each exercise period.
     
    travel. Movement of the body from one point to another.
     
    type. A principle of training that establishes the specific activity to use or the muscles to target during an exercise period.
     
    uneven-beat locomotor skill. Examples include galloping, sliding, skipping, and leaping.
     
    vigorous physical activity. Vigorous-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained, rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend while, for example, jogging, participating in high-impact aerobic dancing, swimming continuous laps, or bicycling uphill. Vigorous-intensity physical activity may be intense enough to result in a significant increase in heart and respiration rate.
     
    volley. To strike a ball upward.
     
    warm-up exercises. Low-intensity exercises that prepare the muscular/skeletal system and heart and lungs (cardio respiratory system) for high-intensity physical activity.
     
    weight-bearing activities. Any activity in which one’s feet and legs carry their own weight. Examples include walking, running, tennis, and aerobic dancing.